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3. Foundations

Jacques D. Bagur University of North Texas Press PDF

3. Foundations


Land was given away through headright grants by the Republic of Texas to encourage settlement. Most grants were for 640 acres to unmarried men and 1,280 acres to men with families. In most cases, a conditional headright certificate was issued to qualified applicants, land was selected, a survey was conducted, an unconditional certificate was issued after a residency of three years, and a final patent on the land was provided some years later. These materials were filed with the Texas General Land Office.

The vast majority of headrights were acquired for farming or were sold by their owners to other persons who used the land for farming.

Land naturally appreciated gradually in value over time; but in the early circumstances when it was given away for free, the only ways in which an immediate appreciation of value could be secured were through land clearing and other farm improvements or through the founding of a town. Starting a town with lots that could be sold individually provided the best means of making money, but the number of opportunities for town formation was small. Many were envisioned that were never realized.

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6. Memory and Justice After the Holocaust and Apartheid

Lawrence L. Langer Indiana University Press ePub

Holocaust survivors do not need to search for memory; memory searches for them, and there is no escape from its clutches. As for justice . . .

In the summer of 1964, I sat in a courtroom in Munich, Germany at the trial of SS General Karl Wolff, Chief of Heinrich Himmler’s personal staff and liaison to Hitler’s headquarters. With his mild demeanor and conservative business suit, Wolff bore no resemblance to a man charged with capital crimes against humanity. As the commanding officer of all SS forces in Italy in April 1945, he had gained much credit with the Allies by meeting secretly in Switzerland with Allen Dulles, head of the OSS, and agreeing to surrender his troops about a week before the official end of hostilities. Fifteen years passed before a state investigator turned up incriminating evidence that led to his arrest, interrogation, and indictment. One of the charges against Wolff was that he had requisitioned trains to carry Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to their death in Treblinka. On this particular day of the trial, a young prosecuting attorney asked Wolff if he had ever been in the Warsaw ghetto. Wolff said he had not. The prosecutor then produced evidence to prove that Wolff was lying. When the chairman of the court, whom we would call the judge, asked the witness what he had to say to that, Wolff replied, “Herr Vorsitzende, ich bin ein alter Mann [Mr. Chairman, I’m an old man]. I can’t remember everything.” The chairman leaned forward and responded, “Herr Zeugnis [Mr. Witness], if I had been in the Warsaw ghetto, I would never have forgotten it!”

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1905 LaPorte County Beach Communities

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Sheridan Beach, to the east of Michigan City’s Washington Park, was one of the first residential communities in Indiana established on Indiana’s Lake Michigan shoreline. Oscar Wellnitz, a Michigan City baker, built the first house by 1905. The Sheridan Beach Land Company, established in 1907 by William Manny and Isidore Spiro, platted the subdivision and put lots up for sale. Recognizing that some folks would just like to rent a place near the beach for a week or so, Manny and Spiro built “The Pioneer” for vacation rentals. It was a small frame house—the first built on Sheridan Beach Drive.

According to historian Gladys Bull Nicewarner, initial sales were slow because people “could not yet see the sense of building summer homes on what, to them, seemed like a wasteland of worthless sand.” People warmed up to the idea as streets and houses were built. Sheridan Beach was finally considered a good investment, and additions to the area were platted. The Sheridan Beach Hotel opened its doors in 1920, by which time Sheridan Beach had become a highly desirable place to live or spend a few days.

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21. “So That I Could Show the White Men”

Edited and Annotated by Charles M. Robinson III University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 21

“So That I Could

Show the White Men”


ay 20th 1881. Breakfast over, Mr. Graham took me to one of the corrals to see the Zunis shearing their sheep. The corral was a simple affair of small poles fastened with rawhide and contained as many as 250 sheep and goats, whose bleating and baa-aaa-ing made the place a pandemonium. A man would seize a sheep by the hind leg, and as soon as the animal had become exhausted with kicking, a squaw would seize the front leg on the same side and thus easily throw the sheep down, when all four feet were promptly tied together and the shearing began; the instrument employed being butcher knives, sharpened pieces of sheet iron and, occasionally, shearing scissors.

In their herds, I noticed hybrids,—half sheep—half goats: the skin of one of these serves as a rug in Mr. Graham’s. Bought a pair of

Zuni ear-rings, of same style as those of the Navajoes—paid for them $1.50. I have now been enough among the Zunis to observe that not a half-breed can be seen among them; this remark does not apply to the children of men, like Jesus, adopted into the tribe. A woman passed us crying bitterly for the loss of her mother who died yesterday. The funeral came along in a few moments and we had every opportunity for observing it: The corpse wrapped in a couple

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Chapter Six: Loose Ends

John R. Erickson University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Six: Loose Ends


n the summer of 1969 I drove down to Weatherford to see if I could locate Martha Sherman’s grave. Grandmother Curry had told me that

Sam Sherman, her nephew (the son of Forrest and Mary D Sherman), had located the grave several years before in a Weatherford cemetery. It had been unmarked, so he bought a gravestone and had it installed.

In Parker County, if you wanted to know about local history, you went to see Fred Cotten, the dean of Parker County historians. I found him in his place of business on Oak Street, across from the old stone courthouse. In this big limestone building, Mr. Cotten ran both a furniture store and a funeral home. An open door between the two establishments enabled him to wait on customers on both sides, although there weren’t many customers the day I arrived. He was sitting in one of his display chairs in the furniture store, beneath a ceiling fan that stirred the humid air. He was up in years, probably in his seventies, and had a shock of fine white hair. He wore a wrinkled white shirt and baggy dress pants held up with suspenders, and a token necktie hung loose at his neck. I joined him under the fan and we talked about local history.

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