6468 Chapters
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Medium 9780253015723

4 The Anxiety of Vernacularization: Shem Tov ben Isaac ibn Ardutiel de Carrión’s Proverbios morales and Debate between the Pen and the Scissors

David A. Wacks Indiana University Press ePub

Diasporic communities construct their identity in different ways, and language choice plays a large role in determining the boundaries among, as well as the relationships with, the hostland, the homeland, and the diverse communities of the larger diaspora.1 We have seen how Sephardic writers mediated between the classical literary languages of the hostland (Arabic) and the homeland (Hebrew) and their participation in the development of a literary vernacular, especially at the court of Alfonso X of Castile-León. In this chapter I will address what happens when a Sephardic author steps into the literary limelight of the hostland, writing in the literary register of the vernacular that is common to both diasporic minority and dominant majority. Shem Tov ben Isaac Ardutiel (Sem Tob or Santób in Castilian) is a key figure in this discussion because he wrote significant original secular literary works in both Castilian and Hebrew. In this aspect he is perhaps unique in medieval Iberia, and the relationship between his Proverbios morales (Moral Proverbs; Proverbios hereafter) and Vikuah ha-‘et ve-ha-misparayim (Debate between the Pen and the Scissors; Debate hereafter) tells us much about the significance of language choice in diaspora.

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Medium 9780253356727

6. Ladino Drama: Case Studies

Olga Borovaya Indiana University Press ePub

In this chapter, I will examine five Ladino plays that belong to different genres—comedy, high drama, and thriller—and combine elements of instruction and entertainment in varying proportions. The rewriter of The Playful Doctor remains unknown, while the four other plays are signed by their creators. The plays will be discussed in chronological order: the two adaptations of Molière’s comedies, The Playful Doctor and Han Benyamin, appeared in Sephardi Theater’s first period (1863 and 1884, respectively); both Purim Eve (1909) and Devora (1921) were created in the second period and explicitly aimed at indoctrinating Sephardim in Zionist ideology. Dreyfus, produced in 1902(?), reflected the Zionist agenda without making any direct statements. Overall, this selection of plays written within almost fifty years provides an adequate picture of Sephardi Theater’s repertoire. I will not analyze any translations of contemporaneous French plays, since this would not add anything to our understanding of Sephardi Theater beyond what one learns from the list of their authors cited in the previous chapter.

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Medium 9781574412864

A Note on Sources and Abbreviations

James C. Kearney University of North Texas Press PDF

A Note on Sources and Abbreviations

This study relies heavily, but not exclusively, on reports, letters and documents contained in the Solms-Braunfels Archives and related collections (Verein, Wied, Strubberg). The name is misleading. The

Archives are the official business records of the Verein zum Schutze deutscher Einwanderer in Texas (Society for the Protection of German Emigrants in Texas), also called the Adelsverein (Society of Noblemen). The documents found a home at one point in the castle of the Solms-Braunfels family and hence the name. The documents languished unknown to American scholars until the 1930s when Dr.

Rudolph Biesele, author of the seminal work, History of the German

Settlements in Texas, became aware of them. Prior to World War II, he led a team that transcribed and indexed the thousands of reports, letters and documents into typewritten German, rendering them accessible and useable to a much wider audience. Interestingly, Dr. Biesele himself did not have the benefit of the Archives when he wrote his book on the German settlements in Texas. Indeed, none of the foundation works about the Adelsverein (von Rosenberg, Benjamin,

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Medium 9780253011046

9 Listening to the Inaudible Foreign: Simultaneous Translators and Soviet Experience of Foreign Cinema

Edited by Lilya Kaganovsky and Masha Sal Indiana University Press ePub

Elena Razlogova

FOR DECADES, NATALIA RAZLOGOVA had a recurring dream: she enters a film translator’s booth and puts on the headphones. The audience is clamoring outside—they can hear the film, they demand the translation, but she hears nothing. She cannot translate; the foreign film is completely inaudible to her.1 This story conveys translators’ fears of failure: being unable to cope with shoddy technology, failing to relate to an alien culture, confronting an incomprehensible language. But most of all, it shows the fear of failing in their responsibility to their moviegoing public. Between the 1960s and 1980s, Soviet simultaneous translators made foreign-film screenings possible: at international film festivals, specialized theaters such as Moscow’s Illiuzion, and tours of foreign films organized by cultural and propaganda agencies. They simultaneously observed and shaped the Soviet moviegoing experience. The improvised voice of a simultaneous translator was a key element of the foreign-film sound track throughout the Soviet Union.

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Medium 9780253356871

Part 4. Victory or Defeat

Luan, Nguyen Công Indiana University Press ePub

The last days of January 1968 marked a communist large-scale campaign against South Việt Nam that turned the war in an unexpected direction. The communist supreme command named the campaign “General Offensive and General Uprising.” It was launched on January 29, 1968. It was Tết’s Eve, the first day of the Lunar New Year, the Year of the Monkey. So it was generally known as the “1968 Tết Offensive.”

In the last weeks of January 1968, at least ten new defectors in Chiêu Hồi centers reported that communist units had secretly purchased a lot of ARVN camouflaged field dress and field police uniforms to prepare for an offensive. The interrogation section under my command was instructed to pass the information and the sources to the Vietnamese and MACV intelligence services.

However, I wasn’t worried. I guessed that what the enemy could do in the cities was some assassinations and bomb attacks. The big party to celebrate Tết for 600 defectors and 300 guests at the National Chiêu Hồi Center went on beautifully.

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Medium 9780874212341

17 Changing Faces and Changing Rules, 1972-1975

Richard Westwood Utah State University Press ePub

By 1972 a multi-million dollar commercial industry had been built up to accommodate tourists who wished to boat on the wild rivers of the nation. On the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon alone tourism had increased from 70 users in 1955 to 16,432 in 1972.1 Campsites on the Colorado were usually narrow sand beaches, and in many parts of the canyon they were very limited. The large number of people visiting scenic spots and heavily used beaches posed problems of congestion, disappearing firewood, and disposal of human waste and kitchen refuse. Furthermore, fluctuating clearwater releases from Glen Canyon Dam were eroding these beaches. In order to determine what effect this increase in use was having on the resource and visitors’ experiences, the Park Service decided to limit 1973 and subsequent use to the 1972 level.

Georgie was just getting used to being regulated by the National Park Service after having had a free run of the river for so many years when:

In December 1972, the NPS announced without warning its plan: the number of persons allowed to float the river would be reduced until the total dropped to almost one-half of what the allocation was in 1971 (96,000 passenger days); and there would be a 25 percent cutback of outboard motors on the river in 1974 and each subsequent year until 1977, when all motors would be eliminated. Only oar-powered floats would be allowed.2

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Medium 9780253020864

6. The George H. W. Bush Years (1989–92): A New World Order

Lee H. Hamilton Indiana University Press ePub

I KNEW GEORGE H. W. BUSH WELL FOR SEVERAL YEARS, GOING BACK to the time when we both served in the House of Representatives in the late 1960s. He was a decent, honorable, positive person.

And, I might add, enjoyable to be around. I remember a relaxing Christmas Day I was spending at home with my family. We had just finished our holiday dinner when a phone call from the president came through. He wished me and Nancy happy holidays and then asked whether I could meet him in a few minutes in the House of Representatives gym for some games of paddleball, which is not something you look forward to after a large meal. I hesitated, pointing out that the House gym would be locked on Christmas. But he said that would be no problem, he’d take care of it—and as leader of the free world that was something he was able to handle.

Bush excelled at making and maintaining friendships. When he first came to Congress in 1967, he was elected president of the House freshman class. Throughout all his years of public service he was known for writing personal notes, staying in touch. His engaging personality made him popular among members of Congress.

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Medium 9781574415056

17. Seeing Jane Again

Chuck Parsons and Norman Wayne Brown University of North Texas Press PDF

“Dear child . . . common Sense and common intelligence of mankind wil[l] vindicate your father . . . there will be no Stigma attached to my name for the blood which I have Spilt is of that kind which can never Stain.”

John Wesley Hardin to daughter Jane, July 14, 1889

t is evident from the Hardin correspondence beginning the second decade of his imprisonment that his studying showed results in greatly improved writing. His letters, although still far from grammatical and with occasional misspelled words, unfortunately are filled with axioms and proverbs, biblical quotes or paraphrases, and advice to his children.

Rarely does he refer to his actions, which would have provided the historian details of his life. He continued to condemn the legal system that placed him in prison, his “unfair” trial, the appeal, the unjust imprisonment, and the legal murder of his brother and relatives. These were the things that were entirely unjust and actually criminal in his mind. At the same time he expressed pride in his achievements.

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Medium 9780253010742

2 Jews and Poles in Dąbrowa Tarnowska before 1939

Jan Grabowski Indiana University Press ePub

Seen through the lens of its ethnic composition, there was little to distinguish Dąbrowa Tarnowska County from other rural areas of Poland. Shortly before the war, local Jews made up 8 percent of the total population, or slightly less than the national average of 10 percent. The majority of Jews in the county lived in Dąbrowa, but nearly two thousand others dwelled in nearby villages, and their lifestyle differed little from that of the Polish peasants. In Galicia—the southern part of Poland that for more than a century found itself under Austrian rule—Jews could buy land and farm. This, in turn, resulted in the existence of a large group of Jewish farmers, a phenomenon unknown in other areas of Poland, which until 1918 were part of the Russian Empire.1 In the rest of Poland, even though the percentage of the Jewish population was significantly higher, Jews were concentrated heavily in cities, towns, and shtetls. Consequently, their contacts with non-Jews were limited to commercial dealings and to the exchange of services.

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Medium 9780253011572

Conclusion: What China Learned

Xiaobing Li Indiana University Press ePub

BETWEEN 1950 AND 1953, MORE THAN 2.4 MILLION CHINESE troops participated in the Korean War. In addition, twelve air force divisions participated in the war, including 672 pilots and 59,000 ground service personnel. China also sent 600,000 civilian laborers to Korea. They entered Korea and worked in logistical supply, support services, and railroad and highway construction. Thus, a total of 3.1 million Chinese “volunteers” eventually participated in the Korean War.1 The course of the war was never the same after China intervened. Allan Millett, Bin Yu, and I conclude that “observers had every reason to believe that, although the PRC government did not declare war on any foreign country and the Chinese forces entered Korea in the name of the Volunteers, this war, in fact, was the largest foreign war in Chinese military history.”2 It appears that Mao Zedong felt he had few political alternatives to sending Chinese troops to Korea, if he wanted the full acceptance of the Communist world in the early 1950s. His alliance with the Soviet Union and North Korea pulled China into a war in Korea that changed the Chinese military forever. China’s intervention in the Korean War was a by-product of the Cold War between two superpowers. With that intervention, China became the leader of the Communist camp in Asia.

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Medium 9781574412222

7 “Doing What He Could”

Juan Francisco Martinez University of North Texas Press PDF

“Doing What He Could”

111

Protestants in the Southwest lived in Colorado, Arizona, and

California combined.

Colorado

The region of Colorado where most Spanish-speaking people lived had been a part of Spanish and Mexican Nuevo Méjico and was included in the original delineation of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico. Most of the people in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado originally migrated from New Mexico and maintained close ties with northern New Mexico. These ties were reflected in Protestant ministry efforts. MEC work in

Colorado had a New Mexican base. PCUSA efforts in Colorado and New Mexico were officially separate but made use of several joint efforts in their work with the Spanish-speaking communities of the two regions.

Presbyterian Church in the United States of America

PCUSA work among Mexican Americans in southern Colorado apparently began in New Mexico. Pablo Ortega, a Penitente leader from Cenicero, Colorado, converted to Protestantism while in Santa Fe under the PCUSA missionary D. F. McFarland. His brother-in-law, Pedro Sánchez, bought a Bible (at considerable cost), which became the focus of a Bible study group that included Sánchez, the Ortega brothers, and others. When

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Medium 9781574410297

12: The General

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

mJ-------------------

The General

keep still. "We could see people moving a bit, but they never could get up and walk away" It would have been easier if they had known that Whitman never shot anyone twice. I

From the top of the Tower, Charles Whitman not only held off an army but he also pinned it down and stayed on the attack, After the tragedy, many police officers' written reports stated that they were unable to move from their positions. Whitman's rapid fire suggested a shift to a greater use of the 30-caliber carbine, an automatic rifle. Earlier he tended to use the scoped 6mm Remington, a far more accurate weapon over long distances, but one that required the manual use of a bolt action. Whitman pinned down Patrolman Jim

Cooney as the officer made attempts to assist Roy Dell Schmidt, the electrician Whitman killed near University and 21 st Streets. "I couldn't get to the man," said Cooney;"

Ambulances were everywhere. For much of the time the drivers and attendants exposed themselves to Whitman's field of vision.

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Medium 9781609949853

Introduction

Sisson, Dan Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

IT IS RARE WHEN A BOOK ABOUT OUR EARLY REPUBLIC IS RELEVANT forty years after it was originally published. It is rarer still when that book provides insight into national problems we refuse to solve two centuries later.

You are therefore holding in your hands (or reading on your pad or computer) one of the most important books you will ever encounter. Here is why: Unlike other histories of this era, this book is written from a revolutionary perspective much like Jefferson’s generation viewed the world.

The American Revolution of 1800 was not just about an election. It was about a life-and-death struggle for power between democratic-republican principles and oligarchic-plutocratic values based on corruption. In short, this book, by implication, is about the identical crisis America faces today.

The author’s unique analysis is based on the idea of faction controlling party and how both undermine constitutional government. In an age where modern parties and the factions that control them have paralyzed our government, this book validates the politics of the Founders.

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Medium 9781574413533

Chapter 18. Same Old Rattling Bill

Rick Miller University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 18

Same Old Rattling Bill

Longley now languished in the well-guarded Galveston County jail until Judge Turner returned to Giddings in August to open the term of the district court. Although constrained by an iron bar connecting his ankles and affixed to chains,1 he kept himself occupied with a prolific frenzy of interviews, as well as writing letters when he could obtain writing materials and postage. Much of what he was reported as saying and wrote during this period gives insight into Longley’s mindset as he sought to both justify himself and rationalize his self-created reputation, at the same time beginning to reconcile himself to his pending fate. But throughout his writings can be detected a continuing glimmer of hope that he might yet avoid the hangman.

In one interview with a Chicago reporter, Longley boasted of yet another killing that he had not previously mentioned. This involved an alleged duel with a man named Grady in Mexico, supposedly in revenge for the killing of a friend of Longley in Texas. Longley also claimed that he was at this time invited, but declined, to participate with Mexican bandits on a raid into Texas.2 As with his other claims, this one also appears to be another idle boast. Although it is possible, there was never any evidence that Longley went to Mexico.

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Medium 9780253011381

6 Business Recovery: Tourism and Construction

Michele Ruth Gamburd Indiana University Press ePub

THE TSUNAMI DAMAGED businesses both large and small up and down Sri Lanka’s southern coastline. The value of the damages in Sri Lanka was estimated at US$1.1 billion, with 31.8 percent of these damages in productive sectors (Telford, Cosgrave, and Houghton 2006, 37). Highly visible in the international news were the loss of fishing boats and the destruction of tourist hotels. An estimated seventy-five thousand people lost their livelihoods in the fishing industry (RADA 2006, 8), and the tsunami damaged 58 of Sri Lanka’s 242 registered hotels (Institute of Policy Studies 2005, 52).

Official help was put in place for business recovery for corporations and workers in the formal economy. Various government ministries, departments, and agencies, private sector actors, and international organizations coordinated loans, grants, and other activities for livelihood restoration and development (RADA 2006, 9). A local Samurdhi Bank worker reported to me that the government poverty alleviation program suspended for a time the repayment of existing loans and extended additional funds for all sorts of small businesses, for example the making of incense sticks or hand-rolled cigarettes, coconut fiber work, masonry or carpentry work, small grocery stores, and the peddling of items by bicycle. By mid-2006, Rs. 4,769 million (roughly US$47 million) had been distributed to support small businesses (RADA 2006, 10). Other banks also offered special low-interest loans for larger businesses rebuilding from the tsunami (Institute of Policy Studies 2005, 51).

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