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Medium 9780253007896

Maple Sugar Time

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Maple Sugar Time activities consist of an early spring walk through five demonstration stations in the Chellberg Farm area that demonstrate the enthusiasm for and making of maple syrup and maple sugar in Duneland over the centuries.

STOP 1 · The American Indian Sugar Camp. Indians poured sap into hollowed-out wooden bowls and then cooked it by placing hot rocks into the sap. If it is cooked long enough, it turns into sugar, always appreciated during and after a long, hard winter.

Sap drips from a spout into a collection bucket.


In the 1830s, Sagganee, a Potawatomi chief (perhaps the same person as Shabbona), went with the rest of his tribe to Kansas, but later returned, saying that he could not live in Kansas because there were no “sugar trees.” He so enjoyed making maple sugar from the sap of sugar maples that he spent the rest of his life in Indiana, where sugar maples were plentiful.

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Medium 9781607321446


Duane A. Smith University Press of Colorado ePub

The mining frontier was an urban frontier. Camps and towns were built at the same time the miners came. This was different from the cattle and farming frontiers, where towns were usually formed years after the first settlers arrived. The miners did not have time to raise crops, manufacture their equipment, or haul in their supplies. But they did have gold and silver to pay others to do those things for them. Therefore, people came and settled in communities that served the mining districts. These townspeople made it possible for large numbers of miners to settle wherever they found gold and silver.

Denver quickly became the most important of Colorado’s new communities. Although not near the mines, it had a good location along two of the most important gateways to the mountains, Clear Creek Canyon and the South Platte River. Denver also had the advantage of being well-known among miners, since it was the center to which many gold rushers first traveled.

Denver grew rapidly and annexed the neighboring towns of Auraria and Highlands. Of Denver’s early rivals, Golden proved the hardest to overcome. Golden was closer to Clear Creek Canyon and the mountain gold. Like Denver, Golden hoped to become the capital of the territory. The two rivals took turns serving as the capital until Denver officially became the state capital in 1881.

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Medium 9781574411652


W. Dale Nelson University of North Texas Press PDF


Westward Once More

On May 13, 1846, a Congress caught up in the fever for westward expansion declared war on Mexico, and Baptiste

Charbonneau found himself enlisted in a mission that was to change his life. As an adult as he had been as a child, he was to be in the vanguard of one of the great westward movements of nineteenth century America. Baptiste signed on as a guide to General

Stephen W. Kearny on an expedition to occupy New Mexico and

California, and Kearny assigned him to the Mormon Battalion.1

Members of the rapidly growing Latter-Day Saints (Mormon) church had not much wanted to join the U.S. Army. As they saw it, the army had failed to protect them from persecution and mob action that had driven them from Illinois and Missouri to Iowa.

Their leaders, however, had a different view. One, former Postmaster General Amos Kendall, urged President James Knox Polk to “assist our emigration by enlisting one thousand of our men, arming, equipping and establishing them in California to defend the country.”2

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Medium 9780870819612

3. What We Know about the Maya and Their Ideas about Creation

Anthony Aveni University Press of Colorado ePub

“And then when the destruction of the world was finished
They settled this [land] so that Kan Xib Yui puts it in order
Then the White Imix Tree stands in the North
And stood as the pillar of the sky
The sign of the destruction of the world…”1

The Maya thought a lot about the creation of the world, as this passage, one of many from the colonial Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel, exemplifies. But who were they and where did they come from? The Maya lived—and still do—in the peninsula of Yucatan, which encompasses portions of Mexico, Honduras, and El Salvador and all of Guatemala and Belize. They inhabit the southern end of Mesoamerica, a common culture area that exhibits a long tradition of a shared set of symbols and ideas, as well as social customs and material forms of expression. This larger cultural area stretches roughly from the Tropic of Cancer, just south of the U.S. border, all the way to the middle of Central America. The more we learn about expressions of Maya legitimacy—their art, architecture, and calendars—the more direct ties we find with the other cultures that made up ancient Mesoamerica, such as the Olmec, the Zapotec, the Aztec, and the people of Teotihuacan. Our own studies of ancient Mesoamerican calendars reveal specific attributes that cross over between the codices from the highlands of central Mexico and Maya Yucatan.2

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Medium 9781574411485

L.C. Graves

Larry A. Sneed University of North Texas Press PDF



After I got to headquarters, my first duty was to take a statement from a lady named Helen Markham who was an eyeball witness to the shooting of Tippit. That took a little while because she was quite upset, rather hysterical really, but I finally got a statement from her. She was a terribly upset lady. Under the circumstances her reaction was fairly typical considering she was close by when it happened, had heard the gun and saw him fall. I had no doubt about the validity of her statement because we verified everything she said. She identified Oswald in the lineup, so that pretty well established the fact that he was the one that did it as far as we were concerned.

The lineup that Mrs. Markham observed was a typical lineup.

The authorization was given by Captain Fritz, and the jail supervisor picked the lineup and brought them down. All those in the lineup were as similar as possible. The only thing different about this one was everybody that could get in got in which, in my opinion, wasn't good. But I didn't have any control over it. Other than just a lot of people being in there, though, that shouldn't have been, it was conducted in the same manner as all others.

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Medium 9781574411973

The Reluctant Warrior: LBJ as Commander-in-Chief

Edited by Peter B. Lane and Ronald E. Marcello University of North Texas Press PDF





George Herring, a professor of history at the University of

Kentucky, is one of the nation’s foremost scholars of the Vietnam War. He is the author of three books on that war, and his monograph, America’s Longest War: The United States and

Vietnam, 1950–1975, is acknowledged as one of the best general works about that conflict. In addition to his books on

Vietnam, Professor Herring has published three other books as well as scholarly articles in the Journal of American History, Political Science Quarterly, Diplomatic History, and Military Affairs.

On several occasions during his academic career, Professor Herring has been called to serve as chair of the Department of History at the University of Kentucky. His other honors at Kentucky include: Alumni Professor (1990); Distinguished Professor (1988); University Research Professor (1986–87); and Hallam Professor of History, (1985–87, elected by colleagues). Professor Herring also has served as president of the Society for Historians of Foreign Relations

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Medium 9780874212341

4 Taking Passengers through Grand Canyon, 1953

Richard Westwood Utah State University Press ePub

In the winter of 1952-1953, Harry Aleson organized a hiking trip that would attempt to follow the old wagon road made by rugged Mormon pioneers in the winter of 1879-1880 on their trek from Escalante to the town of Bluff, Utah.1 By the time Georgie arrived at Richfield, Utah, on April 10, 1953, all who had signed up for the hike had dropped out except Harry. When asked if she wanted to call it off, Georgie replied, “I didn’t come from L.A. for nothing.”2

They left Richfield in a snowstorm on Saturday, April 11, and traveled for several hours in a Jeep with Dan Manning and Neal Magelby, both of Richfield. Georgie and Harry were dropped off at the top of Hole-In-The-Rock; after a little looking around, Manning and Magelby headed back to Richfield.

From this point in 1879, 250 Mormon pioneers from the Cedar City and Panguitch areas had blasted and prayed their way across this most isolated, wildly eroded “slickrock” wilderness in the dead of winter to settle the town of Bluff, Utah. Here at Hole-In-The-Rock, a narrow slit in the rim of Glen Canyon more than a thousand feet above the Colorado River, Georgie and Harry encountered the first signs of the powder-blasted, hand-built dugway made seventy-three years earlier.

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Medium 9781574415735

Recipe for a Birthday Cake

Joyce Gibson Roach University of North Texas Press PDF

Recipe for a

Birthday Cake


I, my own self, can’t give you one of the best chocolate cakes ever made without telling you of the circumstances surrounding the event—and it was an event.

You see, I was born on December 18, 1935, just a week before Christmas during the Great Depression. (I might add that I have lived long enough to claim the Great Recession. No wonder that the GD seems a sweet memory from childhood.) World War II followed and the two events, combined with my being born so near the Lord’s birthday, heightened the specialness of it all.

I am not, however, able to write a straightforward account and memory of my childhood birthday cake.

Therefore, only “A Recipe for a Birthday Cake and a Short

Play in One Scene” will do.

Narrator: Three significant, portentous, historical events rife with worldwide implications marked my early life and are responsible for all that I am today—a peaceful, satisfied, calm, optimistic individual. The events were the

Great Depression in the 1930s, World War II in the 1940s, and My Birthday Cake, which first appeared in 1936.

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Medium 9781607321811

THIRTEEN Drawing the Battle Lines

David R. Berman University Press of Colorado ePub

Democrats could take considerable comfort from the results of the 1914 elections, even though the legislative results were not that encouraging. With these results, combined with an intense corporate lobbying effort, the pace of reform slowed considerably in the legislature that went into session in 1915. By that time the courts had also entered the battle, often coming out on the corporations’ side. Union leaders, many of whom were solidly in Governor George Hunt’s camp, saw themselves engaged in a war of survival on the industrial as well as the political front. Employers throughout the state had become more determined to head off organized labor. This was especially true of mine owners and their dealings with the Western Federation of Miners (WFM).

At the same time, foreign-born miners (especially Mexicans) were becoming more militant, more willing to stand up to the boss, and more attractive to the WFM. The result was a series of strikes, the most serious of which occurred in Clifton-Morenci. Hunt and many Arizonans feared a tide of labor violence, as had recently engulfed Colorado. Governor Elias Ammons of that state had sent in the militia to break a strike of coal miners. The governor’s action led to the Ludlow massacre on April 20, 1914, in which troops attacked a strikers’ tent settlement, set the tents on fire, and killed more than a dozen women and children. The massacre set off a war between the striking miners on one side and company guards and state militia on the other. Hunt sought to avoid a similar outcome in Arizona. Already in trouble, Hunt wound up in even more political difficulty because of his pro-labor stand during the Clifton-Morenci strike. Difficulties in mining areas, however, gave the governor’s opponents both additional incentives and a greater opportunity to topple his administration.

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Medium 9781574410679

Fear of Failure

Eddie Stimpson, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

Fear of Failure

Reader, if you recall, I've told you that we move from Ray

Haggard farm to Allen, and after about a year and a half we move back.

I'm at my sister Ruth home here in the outskirts of

Edgewood on her small farm. Its 1:00 A.M., and we just had a long talk about why we move, the hope and prospect we had after we move, and the disaster we fell into whin we move back where we left from.

Dad had been with Ray Haggard since he was twelve. In the early 1940s peoples began to get better jobs moving to town. Mule and horse field work were being replaced by tractor.

All the share crops earnings were use to pay back borrow money, and I suppose Dad look around and seen what was out side of his perimeters and realize, I got a famley to take care of and year after year I ain't got a penny, after the year of no borrowing money.

I can remember the sight on his face when he first tell us we moving-one that I'd never seen before. There were a sign of happiness in his slow gracious movement, the shy smile on his face, more like a grin, then a laugh. As he walk in the house, I heard him say, Millie, you and the kid come in here. I got some thing to tell you. Mom a little slow coming to the big famley room, thinking all the time, Some thing had bad happen.

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Medium 9781574411461

CHAPTER FOURTEEN 1860 “There is nothing real about European society but its hollowness.”

Elizabeth Wittenmyer Lewis University of North Texas Press PDF

1860 my home and, above all, I have no one even to speak to of all I feel. Do not think I complain of my lot. No, I will be a very happy one if I am spared to return with my husband and child to my mother and home.”1

While Francis recuperated, Lucy resumed her regimen of reading, writing, and study. She arose at eight and took breakfast with her daughter. Afterwards she studied her French and practiced her voice lesson. At eleven she made coffee for her husband’s breakfast and read the French paper to him. Weeks later, when he was able to leave for the office, she went for a drive with her baby or paid and received visits until six o’clock, when they dined.2 A comparative peace settled over the household. The pleasure Francis took in their daughter and his trustful worship of Lucy compensated for his irritating paternalism. With peace at the family hearth, he likened Lucy to the mythical water sprite, “Undine,” who attained a soul after she married a mortal and bore a child. No doubt Lucy smiled to herself for it was the kind and fatherly Rev. Henry Shultz at the Moravian Seminary who first called her by that name.

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Medium 9780253019318

Memoir 60 “Chi and Cheng”

Ssu-ma Ch'ien Indiana University Press ePub

Chi [An] and Cheng [Tang-shih], Memoir 60

translated by Jakob Pöllath and Andreas Siegl

Chi An

[3105] Chi An 汲黯 had the agnomen Chang-ju 長孺; he was a man from P’uyang 濮陽.1 His ancestors were favored by the former Lord of Wey 衛.2 Down to [Chi] An there were seven generations,3 in each of them one served as minister or great official. [Chi] An was employed because of his father’s privilege4 and at the time of [Emperor] Hsiao Ching 孝景 (r. 157–141 BC) served as Forerunner of the Heir Apparent.5 He was feared for his sternness. [After] Hsiao Ching-ti passed away and the heir ascended to the throne (141 BC), [Chi] An was made Internuncio. [At the time when the people of] Tung Yüeh 東越 attacked one another, the Sovereign sent [Chi] An to go there and inspect this.6 He did not arrive [there but instead,] when he arrived in Wu, he returned and reported saying: “That the people of Yüeh are attacking each other is certainly [due to] their custom being that way. It is not worth to disgrace an envoy of the Son of Heaven on account of this.” There was a conflagration in Ho-nei 河內7 that spread to burn down more than a thousand households. The Sovereign sent [Chi] An to go there and inspect this. He returned and reported, saying: “[Whenever] a conflagration happens among the commoners, spreading over a neighborhood and burning [it] down, it is not worth worrying [about it]. [But when] your servant passed through Ho-nan 河南,8 amongst the poor people in Ho-nan there were more than ten thousand households which were suffering from flood or drought, in some fathers and sons fed on one another.9 Your servant has cautiously, according to what was expedient and appropriate, [used] the [imperial] caduceus he carried to distribute millet from the Ho-nan 河南 granary, so as to relieve the poor. Your servant asks to return the caduceus and lies prostrate [to await the punishment for] the crime of forging an imperial order.” The Sovereign thought him worthy and therefore set him free. He transferred him to become Prefect of Hsing-yang 滎陽.10 [Chi] An felt humiliated to be made prefect and returned to his home town on account of illness. The Sovereign heard of this and only then appointed him Palace Grandee. Because he sharply remonstrated [with the emperor] several times, he could not remain long at court, and was transferred to serve as Grand Administrator of Tung-hai 東海.11 As [Chi] An had studied the teachings of Huang-Lao 黃老, in his managing the officials and ordering the people he valued peace and calm. He chose assistants and scribes and left things to them. In his way of governing he supervised only the most important things and did not get lost in the details. [Chi] An was often ill, he lay in his inner quarters and did not go out. [Still,] after [a little] more than a year, Tung-hai was well governed, and he was praised [for it]. The Sovereign heard of this and summoned him to make him Chief Commandant over the Nobility, ranking him among the nine ministers. [His way of] governing lay simply in quiescence, he expanded [his actions to fit] the general political situation [and] did not restrict himself to the articles of the law.12

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Medium 9780874216523

CHAPTER THREE Exploration: From Exploitation to Recreation

James M. Aton Utah State University Press ePub

BLM river ranger Jim Wright rows toward shore to inspect a campsite.

When river runners today leave Sand Wash they may feel like they are entering Powell’s “Great Unknown.”

The river, narrowly confined, drove them onward with
horrible speed and a frightful roar.

—Voltaire, Candide (1759)

When today’s river runners row away from Sand Wash, they probably feel as if they are entering Powell’s “great unknown.” In personal terms, perhaps many are. Current boaters, however, have all the technologically advanced (some say decadent) equipment that Northwest River Supply’s and Cascade Outfitters’ catalogs can offer. They carry French presses to brew Peet’s coffee and battery-operated blenders to mix margaritas. They sleep on thick, inflated pads inside of tents designed to protect them from the hardest rainstorms and fiercest mosquitoes (though not bears). They use waterproof river maps that show rapids, explain and visualize relevant history, and indicate fine terrain details. Roughing it in comfort, they hardly qualify as Lewis and Clarks or John C. Fremonts.

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Medium 9780253006318

6 Marking National Space on the Habsburg Austrian Borderlands, 1880–1918

OMER BARTOV Indiana University Press ePub


Early in Fritz Mauthner’s 1913 novel, Der letzte Deutsche von Blatna, the hero, Anton Gegenbauer, remarks on a minor renovation to an arcade in the main square of his fictional small town, Blatna. For Mauthner and his protagonist, these external cosmetic changes reflect some much deeper transformations that have gradually overtaken the fictional Bohemian community.

The words “Stephan Silber’s Gasthaus”—“zum römischen Kaiser”—had decorated the middle arcade for 20 years. [As a child] Anton had first practiced his knowledge of spelling by reading those freshly gilded letters. Now the text had been whitewashed and the bright red letters that decorated the white background spelled out: “Stjepan Zilbr hostinec.” The given name Stephan had been Czechified, the name “Silber” had simply been written using Czech orthography; “hostinec” basically meant the same thing as “pub,” but sounded more patriotic than “Gasthaus.” This painting over, along with the changes inside that they reflected, symbolized the process by which the German town had slowly but surely been transformed into a Czech one.1

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Medium 9780253011510

6 Religion of the Home: Food and Faith

Jeffrey Veidlinger Indiana University Press ePub

When Mendl Osherowitch visited a Ukrainian shtetl in 1932, he lamented that the Sabbath was barely distinguishable from any other day:

In the street . . . it does not feel like Sabbath. Rarely does a Jew do anything different on this day than any other day of the week. There is simply nothing to do. And in the home, there is also no sign of Sabbath food or white challah. People have already forgotten the taste of challah.

The synagogue, the old synagogue, which is locked for almost the entire week, is opened on this day. It is opened by the caretaker, an elderly, beaten-down Jew, in whose heart beats not a single shard of hope. And people say that every time he takes down the lock of the synagogue, tears flow. When he closes the synagogue up again, he cries even more.

Jews come into the synagogue, they pray quickly and leave for home quietly. And at home they catch a little rest from their hard work—and in the shtetl it is hard to find a Jew who doesn’t have to work hard: either they are in a kolkhoz [collective farm] or in an artel, and if they are not in an artel, they work so hard in order to earn a piece of bread. They rest a little from their hard work, and this they call observing the Sabbath.1

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