171 Chapters
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12: Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

12 

Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Shelley Rhodes,1* Tim Crawshaw,1 Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech,1

Sue Bradford,1 Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2 Gezahegne Mamo,3

Di Summers,4 Ulli Wernery5 and Patrik Zanolari6

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK; 2Chembio Diagnostic

Systems, Inc., Medford, USA; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa,

Ethiopia; 4Camelid TB Support and Research Group; 5Central

Veterinary Research Laboratory, Dubai, United Arab Emirates;

6

Vetsuisse-Faculty of Berne, Berne, Switzerland

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease of mammals caused by infection with bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) (Smith et al., 2009). The disease is characterized by the formation of granulomas, primarily in the respiratory system and associated lymph nodes, from which the mycobacteria are excreted and infect other susceptible individuals. Most cases of TB in farm animals are caused by infection with

M.  bovis, the member of the MTBC that causes bovine TB. However, TB in camelids caused by infection with M. microti (another member of the MTBC), M. kansasii and

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28: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection, Immunology and Pathology of Livestock

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

28 

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection, Immunology and Pathology of Livestock

Judy R. Stabel,1* John P. Bannantine1 and Jesse Hostetter2

1

USDA-ARS, Ames, USA; 2Iowa State University, Ames, USA

Introduction

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

(MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a faecal–oral route in neonates but contaminated colostrum, milk and in utero routes have also been described

(Aly and Thurmond, 2005). An interesting and challenging feature of MAP infection is that it traverses both subclinical and clinical stages.

The subclinical period is prolonged, often lasting years, and animals are often asymptomatic, making detection of infected animals difficult.

Initially after infection and throughout the subclinical period the bacterial load is low and enteric lesions are absent or difficult to identify.

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11: Mycobacterium bovis/M. caprae Infection in Goats and Sheep: Introduction, Epidemiology and Control Measures

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

11 

Mycobacterium bovis/M. caprae

Infection in Goats and Sheep: Introduction,

Epidemiology and Control Measures

Alicia Aranaz*

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Introduction

Tuberculosis in small ruminants is a chronic infection with a devastating effect in affected flocks; this disease produces a serious economic impact and represents a potential risk for human health. The infection has been largely neglected but awareness of its relevance to animal health has increased in recent years.

The members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. bovis, M. caprae and M. tuberculosis) causing infection in small ruminants and the impact of the disease in these species vary depending on geographical areas.

Tuberculosis in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries) has been reported in many countries although there are no official data about the prevalence, except approximate figures in regions where it has been studied in more detail. Tuberculosis in goats can be considered endemic in some countries, with goat populations known to be heavily affected, while in other regions reports are only occasional. The presence of small ruminants infected with tuberculosis may jeopardize the success of the eradication programmes. In some cases, the specific measures applied to cattle are also applied to small ruminants; however, testing of goats or

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Chapter Five: Jelly woman to handsome princess

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Five

Jelly woman to handsome princess

Twenty-two. College graduation right around the corner. Having trouble with the pill, no steady boyfriend, decided to discontinue the pill. Old boyfriend renewed his interest and didn’t listen to “be careful, use a condom . . . ” I should have been more adamant. He didn’t stick around much longer after that anyhow. Never have I hesitated since to stand up for my own well being.

I strongly believe I made the right decision to discontinue the pregnancy. There was no way I could have appropriately provided for a child had the pregnancy continued. I must confess, however, that there are times I ponder just what that 15year-old would be like today . . . but only for a moment. Just long enough to know that I was lucky to have a choice in the first place and that making a mistake shouldn’t mean having a child out of guilt. It shouldn’t mean creating a situation where a child feels this guilt and possible resentment; or where a child does not receive all the care it deserves. Healthy adults are the by-products of healthy children. There is already enough

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Secret 11:Go Confidently with Expert Encouragement

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF

SECRET 11:

Go Confidently with

Expert Encouragement

Ina May Gaskin, C.P.M.

Founder and Director of The Farm Midwifery Center, Author and

Founding Member of Midwives Alliance of North America

Spiritual Midwifery, by midwife Ina May Gaskin, inspired the collecting of natural birth stories from women of today for this book.

The Farm’s Midwifery Center delivered 1723 births over a nineteenyear period with an outstanding safety record: zero maternal mortality and only ten neonatal mortalities, three of which being lethal abnormalities.The majority were home births with 4.2 percent in a hospital. Only

1.4 percent of the births were C-sections.

So far, Ina May Gaskin is the only midwife that a birth maneuver has been named after. The Gaskin Maneuver is a position of the mom on all fours—hands and knees—for assisting shoulder dystocia. If a baby’s shoulder becomes stuck during delivery, moving the mom into this positioning allows gravity to open the way for the gentle birth.

Another term coined by Ina May is the “Sphincter Law.”The circular muscles of our body stay closed until they need to release the contents of the organ. “You can’t order a sphincter to open. Why don’t we call the cervix a sphincter?” Ina May asks. In dilation for labor, the Sphincter Law explains when a woman may be dilated but suddenly closes to a smaller opening because of being afraid or sensing the anxiety of someone in the room. Understanding how much the setting and her vulnerability affects the birthing mom means offering privacy, access to food and drink, and allowing her to labor with love instead of fear for the best outcomes.

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