171 Chapters
Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Eight: Choice as sacrifice, choice as freedom

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

tion of abortion existed even though it was illegal. I chose not to go that route. Like so many women, I did not choose adoption. This doesn’t mean these are not entirely valid choices. I just knew they weren’t right for me. I wanted children and thought I was ready for parenthood. I even thought I wanted four children until I had three and was physically exhausted.

When I was thirty-two, after twelve years of taking the high-dose birth control pills that were available then, my body was starting to rebel. The only solution I could see was sterilization. I was not really ready to foreclose my fertility; still, it seemed the best option at the time. By and by, I became divorced from my first husband. By and by,

I met the love of my life, Alex Barbanell, and we married in 1980. We each had three wonderful children already. From the standpoint of responsibility toward world population, we had certainly done our part.

I was never highly motivated enough to try to reverse the tubal ligation. If, however, there is one great sadness for me, it is that I have never had the pleasure of having a truly planned child with someone I wholeheartedly love and at a time of life when we could have provided the environment in which a child could have the best chance to thrive.

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Medium 9781574413335

SECRET 4: DON’T TAKE LABOR LYING DOWN GRAVITY IS YOUR FRIEND

Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

SECRET 4:
Don’t Take Labor Lying Down
Gravity Is Your Friend

Did you know that the most painful position in childbirth is lying on your back? Women in labor pain aren’t aware that lying supine restricts blood flow and makes contractions intolerable. Yet this is the position used in most U.S. labor and delivery hospitals.

Outside of pregnancy, women find themselves on their back with their feet in stirrups (known as the lithotomy position) only for their vaginal exams and pap smears. The main reason women are instructed to lie supine is because that position provides visibility for the caregiver during labor and for cutting an episiotomy. It provides hospital staff convenience for hooking the patient to a monitoring belt and an IV. Yet birthing supine hurts because the baby is actually born uphill. No wonder women want an epidural!

Before the advent of hospital births around 1900,women gave birth upright. The reason? Gravity is your friend. Ancient sculpture and art drawings depict women being upright for their labor and delivery.

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Medium 9781786392848

1 Sustainable Diets: a Bundle of Problems (Not One) in Search of Answers

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

1 

Sustainable Diets: a Bundle of

Problems (Not One) in Search of Answers

Tim Lang and Pamela Mason

Abstract

This chapter reflects on the status of policy debate about sustainable diets. That the scientific case for shifting the population’s diet into a more sustainable direction is now as certain as science can be. The effect of food on ecosystems, health, the economy and society has turned what could be positive into too negative effects. Yet a policy approach to the food system has remained largely in place, which perpetuates these impacts, seemingly unaffected by the evidence. The policy approach to food centres on output, maximizing consumer choice and cheaper prices.

A gap has thus been created between what the evidence suggests needs to be addressed and what society actually delivers, eats and aspires to. The chapter uses the Nuffield Council of Bio-Ethics’ Ladder of Interventions to gauge why action on sustainable diets is relatively so weak. The ladder posits that the lowest rung one is minimal intervention, and rises higher to invoke tough measures such as fiscal and legal action, and at the top of the ladder on rung eight, choice is totally reframed. The chapter argues that attention needs to be given to how to move up the ladder, so that policy on sustainable diets encourages the radical change suggested by the evidence. Attempts to create international and national policy frameworks for sustainable diets have been few. The reluctance even to step onto the ladder’s first rung is remarkable. While the majority of politicians and food system actors seem reluctant to change, the chapter outlines developments tried by a number of countries and actors at various policy levels. These suggest that the ‘business-as-usual’ policy framework may be fraying at the edges. The chapter concludes by outlining policy arguments that have emerged in what it describes as a process of democratic experimentation, and proposes that policymakers should adopt multicriteria approaches to sustainable diets.

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Medium 9781786392398

27: Effects of Catechins on Intestinal Flora

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

27 

Effects of Catechins on Intestinal Flora

Yukihiko Hara*

Tea Solutions, Hara Office Inc. Tokyo, Japan

Abstract

A human intestine harbors 600 trillion viable bacteria of more than 1000 different species which form the intestinal flora. The condition of the intestinal flora influences many factors pertaining to the host’s health and vice versa. These factors include infection, immune response, cancer, aging, physiological function, and the effect of medicine, nutrition, and even obesity. In order to investigate the effects of tea catechin intake or the drinking of green tea on our health in relation to gut microbiota, the following experimental studies were conducted. First, experiments established the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tea catechins on our intestinal bacteria, and the fate of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in the intestinal tract in rats after oral intake of EGCG. Following this, fecal specimens were analyzed in pigs and chickens, after dosing with tea catechins. They showed a marked decrease of putrefactive, odorous compounds and the increase of organic acids in the feces. ­Finally experiments were conducted in humans, in which after several failed attempts (due, presumably, to the inconsistent diets of free-living subjects), we got remarkably favorable results on the benefits of tea catechin intake by analyzing the fecal specimens of those subjects on the same diet in nursing homes. Improvements in bowel movement by daily catechin intake were also confirmed in ordinary subjects.

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Medium 9781780643960

12: Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

12 

Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Shelley Rhodes,1* Tim Crawshaw,1 Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech,1

Sue Bradford,1 Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2 Gezahegne Mamo,3

Di Summers,4 Ulli Wernery5 and Patrik Zanolari6

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK; 2Chembio Diagnostic

Systems, Inc., Medford, USA; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa,

Ethiopia; 4Camelid TB Support and Research Group; 5Central

Veterinary Research Laboratory, Dubai, United Arab Emirates;

6

Vetsuisse-Faculty of Berne, Berne, Switzerland

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease of mammals caused by infection with bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) (Smith et al., 2009). The disease is characterized by the formation of granulomas, primarily in the respiratory system and associated lymph nodes, from which the mycobacteria are excreted and infect other susceptible individuals. Most cases of TB in farm animals are caused by infection with

M.  bovis, the member of the MTBC that causes bovine TB. However, TB in camelids caused by infection with M. microti (another member of the MTBC), M. kansasii and

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