171 Chapters
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27: Animal Models for Leprosy Research

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Animal Models for Leprosy Research

Linda B. Adams, Maria T. Pena, Rahul Sharma, Ramanuj Lahiri and Richard W. Truman*

National Hansen’s Disease Programs, Baton Rouge, USA


Although Mycobacterium leprae, discovered by

Armauer Hansen in 1873, was one of the first microorganisms to be associated with a human infectious disease, it has yet to be cultured in axenic medium. For nearly a century, attempts by numerous investigators to cultivate the organism outside the human host, or to develop an animal model that accurately recapitulates leprosy, were met with frustration and failure. Animals infected (reviewed in Johnstone,

1987) included the typical laboratory species such as various strains of mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils, hamsters, rabbits and monkeys, as well as an assortment of other mammals (e.g. dogs, cats, pigs, armadillos, chinchillas, fruit bats, lemmings, voles, possums, chipmunks and hedgehogs), birds (e.g. pigeons, chickens, paddy birds, canaries, parrots and love-birds) and cold-blooded animals (e.g. eels, fresh and salt water fish, tadpoles, frogs, turtles, snakes, lizards and alligators). The variability seen in success rates for cultivation in these animals may have been due partly to the low quality of the M. leprae inoculum that was used, as it was largely crude patient-derived biopsy material of unknown concentration and viability.

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Chapter Seven: Making family

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

nature. Years when (in eras past—and even today, in some places and in some minds) fear or envy or resentment of that awesome power led to the inequality and injustices that ensured women had no other power.

Yes, even today, when the debate supposedly is about “life,” and

“choice,” it is really about who has the control over a woman’s power to create life. I spent those years in the sheltered world of Odessa,

Texas, where my three children grew up surrounded by families that, at least on the surface, looked a lot like us, where we were all trying to look like Father Knows Best.

At the time the light bulb—that I might someday have to support these children in that wider world beyond my circumscribed life — went off in my head (shortly after my son, David, was born, and he still refers to himself as “Mom’s light bulb”) I was barely twenty. Two method failures and one episode of magical thinking and, bingo, I had three children. At one every other year, I could end up with fifteen more pregnancies before nature mercifully took me out of commission. I had severe anemia with my last two pregnancies, and I was so exhausted that I was losing weight involuntarily for the first and only time in my life. The Pill had reached Odessa, Texas, by then and I started popping those high-hormone Enovid E’s like they were candy.

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14 Nutritional Indicators to Assess the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF


Nutritional Indicators to Assess the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet

Lorenzo M. Donini, Sandro Dernini, Denis Lairon, Lluis Serra-Majem and Marie-Josèphe Amiot-Carlin


There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society and environment.

Sustainability and food security are closely inter-related. The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems and loss of biodiversity and homogeneity of diets due to globalization, through the improvement of sustainable healthy dietary patterns. This chapter defines a suite of the most appropriate nutrition and health indicators for assessing the sustainability of diets based on the MD. Thirteen nutrition indicators of sustainability were identified in five areas: biochemical characteristics of food (A1. Vegetable/animal protein consumption ratios; A2. Average dietary energy adequacy; A3. Dietary energy density score; A4. Nutrient density of diet and foods); food quality (A5. Fruit and vegetable consumption/ intakes; A6. Dietary diversity score); environment (A7. Food biodiversity composition and consumption; A8. Local/ regional foods and seasonality; A9. Organic/eco-friendly production and consumption); lifestyle (A10. Physical activity/physical inactivity prevalence; A11. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern); and clinical aspects

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Medium 9781786392398

18: Effects of Green Tea on Influenza Infection and the Common Cold

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF


Effects of Green Tea on Influenza

Infection and the Common Cold

Hiroshi Yamada*

University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan


Influenza and the common cold are acute infectious illnesses of the respiratory tract. Influenza is a severe, highly infectious disease caused by the influenza virus; when aggravated, it may become life-threatening. Both illnesses are highly infectious, making prevention very important. In basic studies, tea catechins have been found to inhibit influenza viral adsorption and suppress replication. Catechins are also effective against some cold viruses. In addition to catechins, green tea contains theanine and vitamin C, which enhance immunity against viral infection, suggesting green tea may prevent influenza and/or the common cold. Although the antiviral activity of tea components has been demonstrated, there has been limited clinical evidence to support their utility. Epidemiological studies suggest regular consumption of green tea decreases rates of influenza infection and some cold symptoms. Gargling with green tea catechin extracts and consumption of catechins and theanine may protect against the development of influenza. Further studies are needed to confirm their clinical efficacy.

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19 The Med Diet 4.0 Framework: a Multidimensional Driver for Revitalizing the Mediterranean Diet as a Sustainable Diet Model

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF


The Med Diet 4.0 Framework: a Multidimensional Driver for Revitalizing the Mediterranean Diet as a

Sustainable Diet Model

Sandro Dernini, Denis Lairon, Elliot M. Berry, Gianluca Brunori, Roberto

Capone, Lorenzo M. Donini, Massimo Iannetta, Dalia Mattioni, Suzanne

Piscopo, Lluis Serra-Majem, Andrea Sonnino and Milena Stefanova


The Mediterranean diet (MD), despite the fact that it is acknowledged as one of the healthiest diets in the world, is paradoxically becoming less the diet of choice in most Mediterranean countries. This process of erosion of the

MD is alarming as it has undesirable impacts not only on health, but also on social, cultural, economic and environmental domains in the Mediterranean area. The Med Diet 4.0 has been developed as a multidimensional framework to revitalize the MD. It characterizes the MD as a sustainable diet model, through four interdependent sustainable benefits, with country-specific variations: (i) well-documented nutrition and health advantages, preventing chronic and degenerative diseases and reducing public health costs; (ii) low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, reducing pressure on natural resources and climate change; (iii) positive local economic returns, reducing rural poverty; and (iv) high social and cultural food values, increasing appreciation, mutual respect and social inclusion. All these elements interact and feed into each other synergistically, contributing to holistic well-being of individuals and communities. The Med Diet 4.0 has the broader scope to catalyze a renewed multi-stakeholder interest in the MD as a sustainable driver connecting food consumption to production towards more Mediterranean sustainable food systems. It will allow a new awareness among Mediterranean people of the multiple sustainable values and benefits of the MD, thereby facilitating its revitalization. The Med

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Medium 9781574412970

Secret 8: Meet True Stay-at-Home Moms

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF


Meet True Stay-at-Home Moms

A Doctor’s View of Home Births

Alex Bekker, M.D. and Homeopath* with wife July Bekker, from Peru

Dr. Bekker says his wife gave birth to their first baby at home right before he went to medical school.“I suppose that’s why I wasn’t against home birth.Going through medical school, I would have been more hesitant and afraid if we didn’t already have our first child. I became more aware of all the complications of childbirth. But it didn’t stop us from having two more babies at home with a midwife.”

“I had been training in Homeopathy for some years, so that’s why the idea of natural childbirth was not foreign. A good friend trained to become a midwife around that same time. When my wife, July [pronounced like Julie], became pregnant, we were going to have our child at home without question.”

July admits that she never witnessed birth happen before.“My mom gave birth to all of my brothers naturally at home in Peru except for my sister and I,” she says.“I was a footling breech [the baby’s foot presents first as the baby sits in a bottom down rather than head down position before birth] so she birthed me at a clinic.”

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3: Immunopathogenesis of Tuberculosis in Humans

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Immunopathogenesis of Tuberculosis in Humans

Jyothi Rengarajan,* Jonathan K. Sia and Cheryl L. Day

Emory University, Atlanta, USA

Global Burden of Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an ancient human scourge that is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB) and is the principal member of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) of genetically related human mycobacterial pathogens (Wirth et al., 2008). The most common ancestor of the MTBC complex dates back nearly 40,000 years (Wirth et al., 2008) and

Mtb DNA can be found in the mummified remains of individuals stricken with the disease thousands of years ago (Nerlich et al., 1997;

Donoghue et al., 2010), demonstrating that

Mtb evolution and human history are intertwined. In 2012, there were almost 9 million new TB cases and 1.3 million deaths associated with TB (WHO, 2013). Additionally, two thirds of the world population, or 2 billion people, are estimated to have latent Mtb infection (LTBI). While latently infected individuals control Mtb infection and are clinically asymptomatic, they retain a significant risk of progressing to TB by reactivation of latent

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2: Characteristics of Japanese Green Tea

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF


Characteristics of Japanese Green Tea

Yoriyuki Nakamura*

Tea Science Center, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan


Tea has been served as a non-alcoholic beverage for centuries, and has long been considered a source of health benefits. Many different types of tea have been developed over the years, depending on the variety of tea leaves, the harvest season, and the methods of cultivation and manufacture. Japanese green tea is brewed using a unique steaming process that inactivates oxidizing enzymes contained in the leaves, a process that ensures the retention of desirable aroma and taste traits. In addition, the green tea ceremony is an important cultural tradition in Japan, which has considerably influenced not only the tea-drinking habits but also the spiritual life of the Japanese people. The development and application of modern technologies and analytical approaches have led to the detailed examination of the components of tea and their specific health benefits, leading to the accumulation of a large body of scientific evidence regarding the health benefits of tea consumption.

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15: Anti-obesity Effects of Green Tea Catechins

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF


Anti-obesity Effects of Green Tea


Ichiro Tokimitsu* and Shinichi Meguro

University of Shizuoka and Kao Corporation, Shizuoka, Japan


Obesity is a risk factor for the development of chronic health problems, including heart disease, liver disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. Tea catechins are a group of polyphenolic compounds present in the unfermented dried leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis). The results of randomized controlled intervention trials suggest that daily ingestion of tea catechins (> 540 mg/day) reduces body weight and body fat, and the results of in vivo studies in animal and human suggest that continued ingestion of tea catechins increases energy expenditure and lipid oxidation in liver and muscle. Thus, tea catechins likely reduce body fat by promoting the use of lipids as an energy source and therefore may be a useful means of treating obesity.

Keywords: energy expenditure, lipid oxidation, obesity, randomized controlled trial, tea catechins

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6: Efficient Synthesis of Catechin Probe and its Molecular Dynamics

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF



Efficient Synthesis of Catechin Probe and its Molecular Dynamics

Toshiyuki Kan,1* Tomohiro Asakawa,2 and Makoto Inai1

University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Tokai University Institute of Innovative

Science and Technology, Shizuoka, Japan


This chapter summarizes the syntheses of functional food constituent (-)-epigallocatechin gallate

(EGCG: 1) toward the development for chemical biology investigations. Inspired by the finding that

(-)-5,7-dideoxy-epigallocatechin gallate (2) possessed same biological activity with natural EGCG (1), we designed 6-(5-aminopentyl)-5,7-deoxyepigallocatechin gallate (APDOEGCG) (4) as a useful probe precursor. Synthesis of APDOEGCG (4) was accomplished by cationic cyclization utilizing neighboring participation of the gallate carbonyl group. Furthermore, the synthetic APDOEGCG (4) was readily converted to fluorescein probe 33 and immunogen 35 efficiently due to its high reactivity of the amine functional group. The imaging studies and the generation of antibody using those probes have been demonstrated. Regioselective synthesis of methylated-EGCGs was accomplished by employment with the 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) as a novel protecting group of phenols. Additionally, utilizing the synthetic 4′′-methyl epigallocatechin gallate (52) as an authentic sample, a rapid synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) probe 53 by incorporation of 11C atom into the EGCG (1) has been demonstrated efficiently.

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2 Heritage Folk Costume in Sweden

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

FOLK COSTUMES IN EUROPE MATERIALIZE CULTURAL PRIDE AND resistance in the face of globalizing homogenization. Once worn as daily dress, beautiful garments have become symbols of heritage in many parts of Europe, particularly in the northwestern and eastern nations of the continent.1 Traditions of folk costume are especially robust in Scandinavia, with Norway and Sweden as the prime locations for exuberant displays of elaborate clothing, generally marked regionally by form, color, and motif.

Afro-Brazilian carnival costumes developed out of a historic clash of cultures in a new locale, a place of imperialistic expansion, colonialism, slavery, and prejudice. By contrast, regional costumes in Sweden are set comfortably in place. Their journey has carried them forward in time, most notably in the parish of Leksand in the province of Dalarna, which has become the core of Swedish resistance and preservation of folk costume. The goal has been the maintenance of heritage through the purposeful acts of committed individuals: artists, museum professionals, church authorities, craft teachers, musicians, and local culture brokers. Through willed actions, the costume communicates aesthetics, identity, and community. The tradition of Swedish folk costume in Leksand is spearheaded by one extraordinary individual: Kersti Jobs-Björklöf. In this chapter Kersti teaches us about her famous costume: white linen blouse, laced bodice, wool skirt, and an assortment of colorful aprons.

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Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

Know There’s a Reason
for the Squeezin’

Why do the majority of women in this country now choose to give birth under an epidural? The reasons are complex. We live in a culture of instant gratification where pain isn’t tolerated for many reasons. We have been taught from the time we are little girls to distrust our bodies, and to view its many functions with disdain and dread. There is also a certain cultural taboo against women complaining about their pain and physical issues. Fear of loss of control and anxiety about the unknown, as well as the need for “civilized”ladylike behavior make it difficult in our society for women to surrender to the physical and emotional feelings of labor.

Dr.Christensen explains the historical and religious influences of pain management. Epidural information and the alternatives—the midwife’s epidural or waterbirth,and the use of Nitrous Oxide gas—blend this chapter with two waterbirth stories.

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19: Immune Regulatory Effect of Green Tea

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF


Immune Regulatory Effect of Green Tea

Mari Maeda-Yamamoto,1* Hirofumi Tachibana,2 and Manami Monobe3

Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization

(NARO), Tsukuba, Japan; 2Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Institute of Fruit Tree and Tea Science, NARO, Shizuoka, Japan



We examined the anti-allergic effect of epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG4″Me) isolated from Japanese or Taiwanese tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves. These O-methylated catechins strongly inhibit mast cell activation and histamine release after Fc epsilon RI cross-linking through the suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular protein kinase (Lyn) and the suppression of myosin light chain phosphorylation and high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor expression via binding to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. A double-blind clinical study on subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis or perennial allergic rhinitis was carried out. At 11 weeks after starting ingestion, during the most severe cedar pollen scattering period, symptoms (i.e. nose blowing and itchy eyes) were significantly relieved by “Benifuuki” green tea containing 34 mg/day of EGCG3″Me compared with a placebo “Yabukita” green tea that did not contain EGCG3″Me. One consecutive month of ingestion of “Benifuuki” green tea was useful for the reduction of some symptoms caused by Japanese cedar pollinosis and did not affect any normal immune responses in subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, the “Benifuuki” green tea was found to significantly relieve the symptoms of perennial rhinitis compared with the placebo “­Yabukita” green tea. Based on the investigation of the effects of cultivars, tea crops, and manufacturing methods, green or semi-fermented teas made from fully-matured “Benifuuki” from the second crop should be consumed. The green tea components strictinins and theogallin showed anti-allergic action by inhibiting histamine release through suppressing the biosynthesis of IgE. It was reported that epigallocatechin (EGC) and polysaccharides in tea leaves had immunostimulating activities. Oral administration of a mixture with a high EGC ratio (1:2 to 3 = epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG/EGC) resulted in greater immunoglobulin A production by murine Peyer’s patch cells. The EGCG/EGC ratio in a 4°C green tea extract was around 1:3 to 4, whereas in a 100°C extract, it was around 1:0.7. It was identified that

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27 Decalogue of Gran Canaria for Sustainable Food and Nutrition in the Community

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF


Decalogue of Gran Canaria for Sustainable Food and Nutrition in the Community

Lluís Serra-Majem, Javier Aranceta Bartrina, Adriana Ortiz-Andrellucchi,

Cristina Ruano-Rodriguez, Esther González-Padilla and Sandro Dernini


The ‘Decalogue for sustainable food and nutrition in the community: Gran Canaria Declaration 2016’ aims to improve food sustainability across the globe. Public health, nutrition, consumer, social, marine and environmental sciences and tourism are important topics that have been highlighted in this decalogue, whose full implementation promotes the development of sustainable consumption and production patterns. Food sustainability is an urgent matter that depends on collaborative efforts from governments, the private and public sectors, as well as individuals. Supply and demand works both ways – a shift in the food production landscape depends on a shift in our diets.

It is widely recognized that diet plays an important role in sustainable consumption, and sound science-based guidance is required as individuals, industries and policymakers address the burgeoning environmental challenges. This chapter also takes into consideration the scientific evidence that justifies the development and implementation of the ten keys for a healthier life and world. Investing in the future we want is everyone’s responsibility, and a commitment of the present and future generations. The accountability of all nutrition stakeholders needs to improve if this virtuous circle between sustainable development and nutrition is to be fully realized.

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The Fourth Pearl: Making the Ultimate Commitment

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


Since I love learning, I am constantly seeking the advice of experts in my field. What follows are valuable pearls of wisdom from five such experts.

—Tim Kearin

Marcus Elliott, M.D., and Mike Walker

Throughout this book, reference is made to having an age-appropriate exercise program. We know that the body declines physically from maturity. I have experienced this personally in my own training and in training clients as they age, and have researched the subject extensively.

I thought the best way to sum up this topic would be to have a discussion with Dr. Marcus Elliott. Marcus has a medical degree from Harvard University and is an internationally recognized leader in the field of performance enhancement and the development of elite athletes. Rather than practice formal medicine, Marcus chose to use his medical training and research to develop the finest conditioning and injury prevention program available to professional athletes. The athletes he trains “age out” of his program before 40, as they are no longer physically capable of training at that level.

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