171 Chapters
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Medium 9781786392398

Foreword

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

Foreword

Green tea was introduced to Japan from China in the 8th century or earlier as a kind of medicine. In 1211, the Japanese Zen priest Eisai (Fig. 1) wrote the book Kissa Youjouki (Tea and Health Promotion) and described green tea as the “elixir of care and nostrum for a long-lasting life.” Green tea has been habitually consumed by the Japanese for many years and has occupied an honored place in Japanese life. Why has green tea been accepted as

Fig. 1.  The statue of Eisai in Makinohara, Shizuoka, Japan.

�xi

xii Foreword

Eisai’s saying? That’s because it contains a variety of ingredients which can give healthy effects with the astringency and bitterness, the charm, and the specific taste and aroma.

Indeed, recent scientific research revealed that the physiological function of each ingredient that prevents and cures sickness can be combined additively and/or synergistically with other ingredients to prevent disease and increase the immune response. Green tea also promotes the spiritual healing of humans. Drinking green tea offers a sense of good relief and relaxation. The population of Japan enjoys heathy longevity, and I believe that one reason for this is green tea.

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Medium 9781786392848

12 Understanding the Food Environment: the Role of Practice Theory and Policy Implications

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

12 

Understanding the Food

Environment: the Role of Practice Theory and Policy Implications

Dalia Mattioni, Francesca Galli and Gianluca Brunori

Abstract

The last decade has witnessed an increase in the number of malnourished people worldwide, and particularly of people suffering from overweight and obesity. Research has shown the link between diet quality and the underlying food systems through the intermediation of the food environment. Specifically, a number of studies have analysed the role of the food retail environment and its impact on dietary intake largely by using quantitative geospatial tools – an approach that has been criticized on the grounds of its limited integration of social aspects linked to people’s daily paths and lifestyles. This chapter contributes to a better understanding of the food environment by using social practice theory. Social practice theory can help complement the ‘objective’ measures used to study the retail environment, with more ‘subjective’ measures linked to its more symbolic and social dimensions by using more qualitative and/or mixed methods. With a view to changing people’s food patterns, it is of fundamental importance to understand how food environments shape practices and vice versa, and where change can come about. In some cases, change can be triggered at the level of the material aspects of the food environment, such as the physical outlets where people buy their foods, and sometimes it can be triggered (also) by a change in the meaning attributed to food. This has implications for the types of policies adopted by governments and relevant stakeholders: policies need to be consistent and coherent, and aimed at changing both the material aspects of the food environment as well as the competence people need to make it work and the meaning attached to healthy eating.

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Medium 9780253021311

4. Intimate Ethics

Kathryn A. Rhine Indiana University Press ePub

4

Intimate Ethics

In 2006, I sat in a counseling office at an HIV clinic with Patience, a close friend and key informant. She had worked there for a year as a treatment support specialist. Her day-to-day activities consisted of escorting patients from the lab to the physician’s office to the pharmacy. Patience complained that the medical director had asked her to provide guidance on “living positively” to a distraught patient. They hoped Patience would share her personal experiences with her. Although some of the staff members knew she was HIV-positive, many of her clients did not. The hospital policies did not require her to disclose her status, and she resented being asked to do so.

Like many other patients, this young woman believed that her life was over. Patience confronted the client. She said, “Look at my face. Do you know if I am positive or negative?” The woman said she thought she was negative. She continued, “How do you know this?” The woman responded that it was because she was so fat. “In fact,” Patience countered, “I am positive … so you see, you can live healthy just like everyone, as long as you take your medicine every day.” The medical lesson was clear: if you adhere to your treatment regimen, you will remain healthy. However, Patience also imparted to her client a social lesson implicitly understood by all of the women in that clinic’s waiting room: beauty – displayed through a curvy, welldressed body and modest, yet self-assured, comportment – is deceptive.

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Medium 9781780643960

7 The Global Distribution of Mycobacterium bovis

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

7 

The Global Distribution of

Mycobacterium bovis

Noel H. Smith*

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

Introduction

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtb complex) of bacteria includes an ever-­growing number of named species of pathogenic bacteria all causing a very similar pathology (tuberculosis) in many different mammals (Smith et al., 2006a). The most important member of the Mtb complex is M. tuberculosis which is, both currently and historically, responsible for high morbidity and mortality in humans.

M. bovis, however, is the commonest cause of tuberculosis (bovine tuberculosis, bTB) in bovids. The preferred host of M. bovis is domesticated cattle, although this pathogen can also be isolated from man and many other mammals (Smith et al., 2006a). The sequence divergence within the Mtb complex is minimal; around one change in 2000 bp (0.05%), and many different species have been ‘shoehorned’ into this complex based on differences in the host they were initially isolated from. Because the definition of ‘species’ is controversial in general (Mallet, 2010), and more so within the Bacteria and Archaea

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11: Mycobacterium bovis/M. caprae Infection in Goats and Sheep: Introduction, Epidemiology and Control Measures

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

11 

Mycobacterium bovis/M. caprae

Infection in Goats and Sheep: Introduction,

Epidemiology and Control Measures

Alicia Aranaz*

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Introduction

Tuberculosis in small ruminants is a chronic infection with a devastating effect in affected flocks; this disease produces a serious economic impact and represents a potential risk for human health. The infection has been largely neglected but awareness of its relevance to animal health has increased in recent years.

The members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. bovis, M. caprae and M. tuberculosis) causing infection in small ruminants and the impact of the disease in these species vary depending on geographical areas.

Tuberculosis in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries) has been reported in many countries although there are no official data about the prevalence, except approximate figures in regions where it has been studied in more detail. Tuberculosis in goats can be considered endemic in some countries, with goat populations known to be heavily affected, while in other regions reports are only occasional. The presence of small ruminants infected with tuberculosis may jeopardize the success of the eradication programmes. In some cases, the specific measures applied to cattle are also applied to small ruminants; however, testing of goats or

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Ten: Rights v. access

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

I hope this writer’s commitment continues, because the reproductive rights and health movement needs her passion and her advocacy.

She understands what so many others who think we can’t go back to the bad old days don’t yet get: the bad old days are here.

Rights without access are meaningless

All right, Roe v. Wade hasn’t been overturned; abortion isn’t illegal. Griswold v. Connecticut, which legalized birth control and established the precedent of a right to privacy in reproductive decisions, stands. But our state and federal lawmakers, our courts, and our society’s lack of respect for women and children have ensured that many of us do not have the information, resources, or access to make those rights real. And rights without access are meaningless. If present trends continue, “Access Denied” may as well be stamped on the door of reproductive health centers.

If you’re poor, or young, or are in the military, or live in rural

America, you technically have the right to a legal abortion. But you’ll have to climb over barriers of distance, judicial review, transportation, money, waiting periods, mandated biased propaganda that encourages childbirth over abortion, and more to try to get one. The result might be a more expensive, more difficult, delayed abortion or one like Becky

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Medium 9781780643960

16: Tuberculosis in Badgers (Meles meles)

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

16 

Tuberculosis in Badgers

(Meles meles)

Mark A. Chambers,1* Eamonn Gormley,2 Leigh A.L. Corner,2

Graham C. Smith1 and Richard J. Delahay1

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK; University of Surrey,

Guildford, UK; 2University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Badger Ecology

The European badger (Meles meles) is a social mustelid (related to stoats, otters and mink) within the Order Carnivora. It is distributed throughout Europe and parts of the Middle

East, but population density varies widely across its range. In Great Britain, where badgers have been associated with M. bovis for the last 40  years, they can achieve densities of up to 38 animals per km2. In the British

Isles badgers tend to live in social groups of between 2 and up to 23 adults (Neal and

Cheeseman, 1996). They are nocturnally active and spend most daylight hours in their underground burrows (setts) which can be extensive structures. Social groups typically defend a territory which usually contains a single main sett plus a number of less extensive and less frequently used outlier setts

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Medium 9781626560604

6 The Home Stretch: The Fourth Quarter

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

6

Ken: Because I had gained a couple of pounds over the summer, I decided I needed to do something in September to give myself a little extra boost on the nutrition and weight control part of my program. I kept hearing Ted Leitner, the radio play-by-play announcer for the San Diego Padres baseball team, talk about Medifast: “If you’ve been struggling to lose weight, Medifast will get you results.” So not too long after we returned from Skaneateles, I thought, Why not? Maybe it can get me over this weight plateau.

I called Dr. Rice to get his feedback. He checked out Medifast in his circles with positive results. The combination of healthy choice meals together with prepackaged meals and snacks seemed to make sense, and these foods were nutrition balanced. I went ahead and made an appointment at a nearby location. When I went in for my appointment, the woman who ran the office gave me an overview of the Medifast system and the best strategy for me. I was impressed, so I joined. It’s not cheap, but I thought it was worth it.

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Medium 9781786392398

19: Immune Regulatory Effect of Green Tea

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

19 

Immune Regulatory Effect of Green Tea

Mari Maeda-Yamamoto,1* Hirofumi Tachibana,2 and Manami Monobe3

Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization

(NARO), Tsukuba, Japan; 2Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Institute of Fruit Tree and Tea Science, NARO, Shizuoka, Japan

1

Abstract

We examined the anti-allergic effect of epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3″Me) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG4″Me) isolated from Japanese or Taiwanese tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves. These O-methylated catechins strongly inhibit mast cell activation and histamine release after Fc epsilon RI cross-linking through the suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular protein kinase (Lyn) and the suppression of myosin light chain phosphorylation and high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor expression via binding to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. A double-blind clinical study on subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis or perennial allergic rhinitis was carried out. At 11 weeks after starting ingestion, during the most severe cedar pollen scattering period, symptoms (i.e. nose blowing and itchy eyes) were significantly relieved by “Benifuuki” green tea containing 34 mg/day of EGCG3″Me compared with a placebo “Yabukita” green tea that did not contain EGCG3″Me. One consecutive month of ingestion of “Benifuuki” green tea was useful for the reduction of some symptoms caused by Japanese cedar pollinosis and did not affect any normal immune responses in subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, the “Benifuuki” green tea was found to significantly relieve the symptoms of perennial rhinitis compared with the placebo “­Yabukita” green tea. Based on the investigation of the effects of cultivars, tea crops, and manufacturing methods, green or semi-fermented teas made from fully-matured “Benifuuki” from the second crop should be consumed. The green tea components strictinins and theogallin showed anti-allergic action by inhibiting histamine release through suppressing the biosynthesis of IgE. It was reported that epigallocatechin (EGC) and polysaccharides in tea leaves had immunostimulating activities. Oral administration of a mixture with a high EGC ratio (1:2 to 3 = epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG/EGC) resulted in greater immunoglobulin A production by murine Peyer’s patch cells. The EGCG/EGC ratio in a 4°C green tea extract was around 1:3 to 4, whereas in a 100°C extract, it was around 1:0.7. It was identified that

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Chapter Five: Jelly woman to handsome princess

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Five

Jelly woman to handsome princess

Twenty-two. College graduation right around the corner. Having trouble with the pill, no steady boyfriend, decided to discontinue the pill. Old boyfriend renewed his interest and didn’t listen to “be careful, use a condom . . . ” I should have been more adamant. He didn’t stick around much longer after that anyhow. Never have I hesitated since to stand up for my own well being.

I strongly believe I made the right decision to discontinue the pregnancy. There was no way I could have appropriately provided for a child had the pregnancy continued. I must confess, however, that there are times I ponder just what that 15year-old would be like today . . . but only for a moment. Just long enough to know that I was lucky to have a choice in the first place and that making a mistake shouldn’t mean having a child out of guilt. It shouldn’t mean creating a situation where a child feels this guilt and possible resentment; or where a child does not receive all the care it deserves. Healthy adults are the by-products of healthy children. There is already enough

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Medium 9781786392848

13 Sustainable Diets: Social and Cultural Perspectives

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

13 

Sustainable Diets: Social and Cultural

Perspectives

F. Xavier Medina and Alicia Aguilar

Abstract

The incorporation of sustainability issues into the international agri-food and nutritional agenda has been increasingly discussed over the last decades. In this framework, anthropological concerns with food and nutrition have increased greatly in the last five decades, and the development has been across the subdisciplines of anthropology and in conjunction with other academic disciplines. Nevertheless, social and cultural aspects related to food are, even today, frequently neglected, regarded as secondary or less important in comparison to other ‘main’ subjects like health or economy. In this sense, the aim of this chapter is to focus on the social and cultural perspective of food and its intrinsic relationship with diets, territories and sustainability, highlighting this point of view as an essential part of a very complex panorama, helping to have a more comprehensive and less partial view of the situation.

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Medium 9781626560604

Understanding Exercise and Fitness: Tim’s Toolbox

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Resources II

This appendix gives you a more in-depth overview of the components of fitness that I’ve shared throughout this book. Even if you already have a good knowledge of fitness, you may want to review this section anyway.

—Tim Kearin

Because the qualifications to be a fitness trainer do not require a license, there are many different approaches and philosophies to fitness. Just because some people look lean and muscular doesn’t necessarily mean they know what they are doing. The industry has numerous trainer certification courses where the basics of physiology and anatomy are taught along with safety concerns and CPR. Most universities and colleges offer bachelor’s, master’s and even Ph.D. degrees in many sports science areas, including kinesiology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, and several other exercise disciplines. When seeking out a trainer, it is always a good idea to check the résumé, which should include at least a bachelor’s degree and several years of experience working with individuals in your age group. It is also a good idea to check a reference or two.

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19: Tuberculosis in Wild and Captive Deer

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

19 

Tuberculosis in Wild and

Captive Deer

Mitchell V. Palmer,1* Daniel J. O’Brien,2 J. Frank Griffin,3

Graham Nugent,4 Geoffrey W. de Lisle,5 Alastair Ward6 and Richard J. Delahay6

1

National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa; 2Michigan Department of Natural

Resources, Lansing, Michigan; 3University of Otago, Dunedin,New Zealand;

4

Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand; 5National Centre for

Biosecurity and Infectious Disease, Upper Hutt, New Zealand; 6Animal and Plant Health Agency, York, UK

Introduction

Bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium are Gram-­ positive, acid-fast organisms that include several major human and animal pathogens.

Although human tuberculosis is generally caused by M. tuberculosis, indistinguishable clinical signs and disease can be caused by

M. bovis. The range of susceptible hosts to

M. bovis is extremely broad and includes humans, cattle, swine, carnivores and deer.

Deer have played an important role in human history. Excavations of early prehistoric sites in Europe indicate that both deer and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were important sources of meat for early humans. Red deer

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5 Biodiversity Loss: We Need to Move from Uniformity to Diversity

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

5 

Biodiversity Loss: We Need to Move from Uniformity to Diversity

Emile A. Frison and Nick Jacobs

Abstract

Today’s food and farming systems have succeeded in supplying large volumes of foods to global markets but are generating negative outcomes on multiple fronts: wide-spread degradation of land, water and ecosystems; high greenhouse gas emissions; biodiversity losses; persistent hunger and micronutrient deficiencies, and the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related diseases; and livelihood stresses for farmers around the world. These problems are tied to the industrial model of agriculture that is increasingly dominant around the world. The uniformity at the heart of these systems leads systematically to negative outcomes and vulnerabilities, and particularly the use of an increasingly narrow pool of animal breeds and plant varieties. The ‘Green Revolution’ of the post-war period left a dual legacy: huge advances in the productivity of staple crops, and the concurrent marginalization of whole swathes of foods, crop varieties – and the communities depending on them. The low-diversity industrial model is locked in place by a series of vicious cycles. Highly compartmentalized approaches to research, education and policymaking allow one-dimensional productivity-focused solutions to prevail, and obscure the links between healthy ecosystems, a healthy planet and healthy people. Meanwhile, the way food systems are currently structured allows value to accrue to a limited number of actors, reinforcing their economic and political power, and thus their ability to influence the governance of food systems. To break these cycles, a fundamentally different model of agriculture is required, based on diversifying farms and farming landscapes, replacing chemical inputs, optimizing biodiversity and stimulating interactions between different species, as part of holistic strategies to build long-term fertility (i.e. ‘diversified agroecological systems’). There is growing evidence that these systems keep carbon in the ground, support biodiversity, rebuild soil fertility and sustain yields over time, providing a basis for secure farm livelihoods and diverse healthy diets.

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28 Ten Years to Achieve Transformational Change: the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition 2016–2025

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

28 

Ten Years to Achieve

Transformational Change: the United

Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition

2016–2025

Stineke Oenema

Abstract

The world has formulated an ambitious agenda foreseeing to eliminate all forms of malnutrition and achieving sustainability targets. This agenda is described in various globally agreed documents: the 2030 Agenda, the outcome documents of the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) and the nutrition targets of the

World Health Assembly. The decade 2016–2025 has been proclaimed the United Nations Decade of Action on

Nutrition, and offers a ten-year window of opportunity to intensify policies, programming and actions to improve nutrition. The Nutrition Decade should lead to the transformation of food systems in order to achieve the global nutrition targets, the elimination of all forms of malnutrition and accelerate the achievement of the 2030 Agenda. The promotion of sustainable diets is an entry point to start doing this. Sustainable diets serve to promote people’s health and promote the demand for sustainably produced food as well as reduce the demand for products that have a high environmental footprint. The development of national food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) that include sustainability criteria is an important step to promote sustainable diets. Apart from FBDG, the food environment and the space in which consumers make their dietary choice should be nudged in such a way that the healthier and more sustainable choice becomes the easier and obvious choice. This could be done through several forms of regulations, including taxes and subsidies. Despite the emerging level of evidence underpinning these measures and tools, still more insight and indicators are needed to be able to make the best decisions to change the food environment for the better. Investments are needed and are worth the effort considering the rate of return for investments in nutrition is 1:16. But we have to act now: the Nutrition Decade has been underway for two years, eight years to go. . .

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