171 Chapters
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Medium 9781786392398

3: Research on Tea and Human Health in China and the Contribution to the Development of the Chinese Tea Industry

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

3 

Research on Tea and Human Health in China and the Contribution to the

Development of the Chinese Tea Industry

Chen Zongmao* and Lin Zhi

Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China

Abstract

The sustainable development of the China tea industry from 1950 to 2015 is briefly described in this chapter. The investigations of tea drinking and human health conducted by Chinese scientists over the period 2010–2015 are reviewed. An epidemiological investigation conducted in China from 1994 to

2013 including 28 case-control and cohort studies between tea drinking and various types of cancer are described. The relationship of constituents and properties of various types of tea and their pharmacological function to different human diseases is discussed from the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine.

Keywords: anticancer activity, anti-obesity activity, antioxidative activity, epigallocatechin-3-gallate

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Medium 9781786392398

25: Green Tea and Oral Health

Hara, Y.; Yang, C.S.; Isemura, M. CABI PDF

25 

Green Tea and Oral Health

Rupali Agnihotri* and Sumit Gaur

Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India

Abstract

Chronic oral diseases like periodontitis, dental caries, oral cancer, and premalignant conditions are now recognized as a global epidemic. While dental plaque biofilm is the main causative agent in periodontitis and dental caries, tobacco and alcohol consumption are implicated in the latter conditions.

As green tea catechins have antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic properties, it is worth exploring their role in prevention of the above conditions. Recent evidence reveals that green tea with its myriad of properties could be reliably used in their management and this is discussed in this chapter.

Keywords: dental caries, green tea, oral cancer, periodontitis, premalignant conditions

25.1 Introduction

Chronic oral diseases, like dental caries, periodontitis, oral cancer, and premalignant conditions, have distressed mankind for ages (Jin et al., 2016). Considering their impact on vital oral functions, self-esteem, quality of life, overall health and well-being, these oral diseases have now been recognized as a worldwide epidemic and a major public health problem

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Medium 9780253015969

5 Litigating the Revolution

Jo B. Paoletti Indiana University Press ePub

Fashion has had a legal side for centuries. Powerful rulers once set limits on who could or could not wear certain finery and decreed that colors, badges, or hats be used to set certain groups of people apart as “others”—Jews, for example, who were required to wear yellow badges or pointed hats in parts of thirteenth-century Europe.1 The umbrella term for these edicts is “sumptuary laws”; one of my favorites, from medieval Spain, begins with “the king may wear anything he wishes.” Sumptuary laws reveal a great deal about a society—for example, which goods are highly valued (and therefore reserved for the élites) and also which groups may be considered a threat to the status quo. Amid the social turbulence of the Renaissance, wealthy merchants and their wives were often singled out as needing to be reminded of their inferiority to their high-born betters. Economist Thorstein Veblen observed in 1899 that in modern capitalism, wealth could be freely displayed by nearly everyone who has it, as a sign of socioeconomic superiority. But we still face restrictions in the form of dress codes, usually in schools or in the workplace, that attempt to enforce a uniform appearance or suppress potentially disruptive elements. These modern regulations have elements of social class (public schools with uniform dress codes tend to be in poorer districts), race (local ordinances against “saggy pants”), or gender (laws against cross-dressing and public indecency, dress codes that enforce gender stereotypes). Sumptuary laws don’t come from out of the blue: they are a reaction by the powerful to undesirable behavior from their “inferiors.” The rampant and dramatic changes in gender expression that emerged in the 1960s met with just such resistance, leading in some cases to the courtroom and sometimes even to prison. The litigious heat generated by long hair, short skirts, and women in pants is strong evidence that these were far from trivial issues for the parties involved. The fact that we are still arguing about the same principles, though in different clothing, is part of the ongoing legacy of the 1960s.

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19: Tuberculosis in Wild and Captive Deer

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

19 

Tuberculosis in Wild and

Captive Deer

Mitchell V. Palmer,1* Daniel J. O’Brien,2 J. Frank Griffin,3

Graham Nugent,4 Geoffrey W. de Lisle,5 Alastair Ward6 and Richard J. Delahay6

1

National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa; 2Michigan Department of Natural

Resources, Lansing, Michigan; 3University of Otago, Dunedin,New Zealand;

4

Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand; 5National Centre for

Biosecurity and Infectious Disease, Upper Hutt, New Zealand; 6Animal and Plant Health Agency, York, UK

Introduction

Bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium are Gram-­ positive, acid-fast organisms that include several major human and animal pathogens.

Although human tuberculosis is generally caused by M. tuberculosis, indistinguishable clinical signs and disease can be caused by

M. bovis. The range of susceptible hosts to

M. bovis is extremely broad and includes humans, cattle, swine, carnivores and deer.

Deer have played an important role in human history. Excavations of early prehistoric sites in Europe indicate that both deer and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were important sources of meat for early humans. Red deer

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Medium 9781574412970

Secret 8: Meet True Stay-at-Home Moms

Kalena Cook and Margaret Christensen, M.D. University of North Texas Press PDF

SECRET 8:

Meet True Stay-at-Home Moms

A Doctor’s View of Home Births

Alex Bekker, M.D. and Homeopath* with wife July Bekker, from Peru

Dr. Bekker says his wife gave birth to their first baby at home right before he went to medical school.“I suppose that’s why I wasn’t against home birth.Going through medical school, I would have been more hesitant and afraid if we didn’t already have our first child. I became more aware of all the complications of childbirth. But it didn’t stop us from having two more babies at home with a midwife.”

“I had been training in Homeopathy for some years, so that’s why the idea of natural childbirth was not foreign. A good friend trained to become a midwife around that same time. When my wife, July [pronounced like Julie], became pregnant, we were going to have our child at home without question.”

July admits that she never witnessed birth happen before.“My mom gave birth to all of my brothers naturally at home in Peru except for my sister and I,” she says.“I was a footling breech [the baby’s foot presents first as the baby sits in a bottom down rather than head down position before birth] so she birthed me at a clinic.”

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29: Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

29 

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial

Infections

Joseph O. Falkinham III*

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA

Introduction

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that share environments with animals, poultry and humans. The causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is the only classic pathogen of the group; all other subspecies are opportunistic pathogens. For the opportunists, disease follows exposure to the portion of the population that is transiently susceptible. Quite possibly the major sources of

NTM infection for humans are drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing (Falkinham et  al., 2001; Falkinham, 2011). As NTM are natural inhabitants of soils (Iivanainen et al.,

1997; De Groote et al., 2006), soil is a source of infection for both humans and animals (via dusts). NTM are quite hardy; their wax-rich outer membrane contributes to their resistance to disinfection and antibiotics (Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). As the NTM are innately resistant to anti-tuberculosis agents, drug therapy is problematic, even in humans and companion animals. For agronomic animals, for example pigs, it is more cost effective to reduce levels of NTM in the animal’s environment.

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Medium 9781780643960

9: Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

9 

Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis

Infection in Cattle

Bryce M. Buddle,1* Geoffrey W. de Lisle,2

W. Ray Waters3 and H. Martin Vordermeier4

1

Hopkirk Research Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand; 2National Centre for

Biosecurity and Infectious Disease, Upper Hutt, New Zealand; 3National Animal

Disease Center, Ames, Iowa, USA; 4Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis continues to be a major animal health problem, having adverse impacts on socio-economic conditions, public health and trade of animals and animal products. Worldwide it has been estimated that approximately

50 million cattle are infected with M. bovis

(Hope and Villarreal-Ramos, 2008). The most effective strategy for the control of bovine TB requires identification and removal of infected animals from herds. Cellular immune assays can efficiently identify M. bovis-infected animals as they can detect infection at an early stage and have a high relative sensitivity. For more than 100 years the tuberculin intradermal test has been used for this purpose. The application of the tuberculin intradermal test, and removal of test-positive (reactor) cattle, have been responsible for the eradication of bovine TB from many countries including

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Medium 9781626560604

Developing Your Own Fitness Program

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Resources III

Here are some helpful reminders to get you started and a tool you can use to measure your progress in each of the six fitness areas we have discussed.

Before beginning your fitness journey, we suggest you review Tim’s section starting on page 63 entitled “Selecting the Right Program for You” to brush up on the elements you’ll need to have in place when you start your program. Once you’ve accomplished the first four elements (having a compelling purpose, getting a medical checkup, becoming educated about fitness, and setting up your support system), you’ll see that the final element you need to put in place is learning about and applying Situational Leadership® II, which is covered in detail in Ken’s section that starts on page 27.

The first step in applying SLII® is to set SMART goals for yourself—specific, motivating, attainable, relevant, and trackable—so you know what you want to accomplish and when. (To reacquaint yourself, see page 29.)

The next step is to diagnose your present development level in each of the six areas of fitness by checking the appropriate box in the table below. Respond openly and honestly.

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Medium 9781574413335

SECRET 7: FIND OUT HOW BIRTH CENTERS BRIDGE THE CHOICE

Kalena Cook, Margaret Christensen University of North Texas Press ePub

SECRET 7:
Find Out How Birth Centers
Bridge the Choice

Free-standing birth centers offer a bridge between home and a hospital. You have the comforts of home—a bedroom, kitchen, bathroom, sitting area—to gather family and friends without tidying up. The environment feels more relaxing than a bustling hospital. But there’s oxygen, resuscitation equipment, and a baby warmer tucked discreetly inside an armoire.

In addition to being as safe as a hospital,1 the main advantage in using a birth center is the personalized, one-on-one care. Your midwife gets to know you—your concerns and preferences. Prenatal visits cover more in-depth information than an obstetrician may have time for. Over a cup of tea, your midwife might review your nutrition regimen, or if you have other children with you, let them listen to their sibling’s heartbeat. All of which provides greater relaxation, so important in natural birth.

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4 Dealing with Adversity: The Second Quarter

Blanchard, Ken Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

4

Ken: March went well as Mike and I continued my training at Tim’s facility. We even got in some Egoscue sessions. I didn’t have a big weight loss month, but I did shed a few more pounds.

My April schedule, which included several speaking engagements in Hawaii, was a nice interruption. I took Margie, our daughter Debbie, and her almost-six-year-old son Alec with me. I love Hawaii. In fact, I can never remember having a bad time there—particularly Maui, which is where we went. Knowing that it would be a challenge to keep up my program, I worked with a coach at the hotel three times on strength, flexibility, balance, and aerobics. I got on the bike a couple of additional times and we also did a lot of walking, so I was proud of myself. I also reconnected with Alison Miller, a family friend who is a life coach in Maui. Alison came to our hotel and spent some time with us. She also does massage.

After spending time with Alison and listening to her philosophies on health, I asked her if we could talk on the phone once in a while so I could seek her advice. She gave me a group of nine stretches to do every day when I woke up. I did them religiously when I got up in the morning and continued them after I returned home. Talking with her on the phone periodically was very helpful. Alison has a natural S2—Coaching leadership style and helped me analyze what was going well and what wasn’t. I realized that when I got into a busy week, unless I scheduled exercise time and said, “This is part of my schedule,” I tended not to get it done. So I was really getting a lot better about putting exercise into my schedule.

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Medium 9781786392848

7 Indigenous Food Systems: Contributions to Sustainable Food Systems and Sustainable Diets

Burlingame, B.; Dernini, S. CABI PDF

7 

Indigenous Food Systems:

Contributions to Sustainable

Food Systems and Sustainable Diets

Harriet Kuhnlein, Paul Eme and Yon Fernandez de Larrinoa

Nana and Baba the creators told us: We have given you everything, you will not be poor if you are close to us, there will always be food. This is why the Guna are always respecting the Forest and the Oceans, and everything created by Baba and Nana (Guna Yala Chief  ).

(López, 2017)

Abstract

Indigenous food systems are remarkable reservoirs of unique cultural knowledge grounded in historical legacy and spirituality that acknowledge the inextricable link of people with their sustainably managed resources. These sustainable food systems can provide essential understanding about sustainable diets and their importance to many of the Sustainable Development Goals. Unique practices of land and plant and animal management are now threatened by extreme weather and overall climate variability that compound the risks of a long list of environmental assaults upon indigenous lands. Despite vast knowledge of the world’s territories and guardianship of

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14: Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

14 

Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants

Susan K. Mikota,1* Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2

Linda Lowenstine,3 Dalen Agnew4 and Joel N. Maslow5

1

Elephant Care International, Howenwald, USA; 2Chembio Diagnostics, Inc.,

Medford, USA; 3University of California, Davis, USA; 4Michigan State University,

East Lansing, USA; 5Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, USA

A Brief History of TB in Elephants

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease of man and animals, including elephants. TB has also been postulated to have been a factor in the extinction of the mastodon (Mammut americanum) during the late Pleistocene (Rothschild and Laub, 2006), as foot lesions identical to those documented in bison and considered as pathognomonic for TB were found in 59 of 113 (52%) mastodon skeletons examined

(Rothschild and Laub, 2006). A disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) resembling TB was described over 2000 years ago in the ancient

Sanskrit text ‘Hasthyayurveda’ (Iyer, 1937).

Case reports in the 19th century include that of an 18-year-old Asian bull that died of TB at Jardin des Plantes in Paris, recorded in the

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Medium 9780253015778

3 Play The Society for Creative Anachronism

Pravina Shukla Indiana University Press ePub

HISTORICAL COSTUMES ENABLE THEIR WEARERS AND BEHOLDERS to travel in time, to imagine or inhabit the past. During historical reenactments, accuracy and authenticity are valued, for meticulous costumes grant their wearers the right to represent the past, often in critique of the present.

The next three chapters examine distinct categories of historical reenactment: first, the Society for Creative Anachronism, an amateur association whose primary focus is in-group entertainment with no spectators in attendance; second, several groups of American Civil War reenactors, semiprofessional historians who strive for both personal enjoyment and public education; and finally, the Colonial Williamsburg living history museum, a professional institution whose mission is to educate a paying audience of visitors.

Each example of historical costuming centers on the premise of time travel, of transporting oneself and spectators to another time and place. The specificity of time and place vary, as do the degree of authenticity, the levels of tolerance of inaccuracy, and the skills of performance. All three examples of living history involve people impersonating others—nobility from the Middle Ages, Civil War soldiers, or residents of Williamsburg in the eighteenth century. Unlike our examples from Sweden and Brazil, in which history was gathered into the costumed individuals, in historical reenactment the individual is gathered into history, as these studies consider the expression of identity through the clothing of someone from another time and place. Personal heritage, however, remains a major motivation. In each of these examples we find historical costumes used as a means of social commentary. In each, dedicated individuals combine artistry and a notion of accuracy to make, wear, and perform historical costumes, achieving personal fulfillment while working toward the creation of community.

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Medium 9780253355331

2 Mandeni: “The AIDS Capital of KwaZulu-Natal”

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

If you drive north from Durban up the N2 highway you might smell central Mandeni before you see it. You know you are getting close when you cross the Thukela River, which formerly divided the British colony of Natal from the independent Zulu Kingdom. Then, turning onto a northwest-bound road, you will pass the former white town of Mandini. Its name is actually a misspelling of “Mandeni,” an older word for the area and now the name of the local municipality.

Continue driving and you be assaulted by a nasty, sulphurous smell just as the fuming chimneys of a paper mill come into view. If you wish to take in some spectacular apartheid landscape, close your car windows and turn north from here. To your right you’ll be admiring the lush sugar-cane farms of the former white-designated land; but glance left and you’ll see the former KwaZulu homeland/bantustan—a sprawling African township and thousands of shacks. Then, at a place called Isithebe, you’ll see a giant industrial complex of more than 180 factories.

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10: Vaccination of Cattle Against Tuberculosis

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

10 

Vaccination of Cattle Against

Tuberculosis

H. Martin Vordermeier,1* Bryce M. Buddle,2 Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos,1

Gareth J. Jones,1 R. Glyn Hewinson1 and W. Ray Waters3

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK; 2Hopkirk Research

Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand; 3USDA-ARS-NADC, Ames, USA

Introduction

Bovine TB (bTB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a significant economic burden to agricultural industries worldwide. It has been estimated that 50 million cattle are infected with M. bovis worldwide resulting in around US$3 bn losses annually and this is despite attempts to control the disease. For example, over the last two decades the (tuberculin) test and slaughter strategy failed to prevent a dramatic rise in the incidence of bTB in cattle in England and Wales (https://www. gov.uk/government/statistics/incidence-of-­ tuberculosis-tb-in-cattle-in-great-britain). Development of new and improved cattle vaccines and diagnostic reagents for cattle as well as other domestic animal species and wildlife has therefore emerged as a research area that could contribute to improved disease control. However, a number of challenges need to be overcome, some scientific, others legal or regulatory.

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