92 Slices
Medium 9781574414516

Rust

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Jewelry

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

76

- Fill a small bowl with any liquid soap and a teaspoon

-

or more of clear ammonia. The ammonia adds luster to the gold and brilliance to any encrusted stones.

Immerse the pieces in the bowl. Let stand for a few minutes.

Remove one piece at a time. Using a soft toothbrush, gently brush the piece.

Rinse the piece in a bowl of hot water. Be sure to close the drain if you rinse jewelry in a sink basin.

Dry the piece carefully.

• Another method to clean gold without the liquid soap

is to soak the jewelry in equal parts ammonia and lukewarm water for ten minutes. Rub with a soft brush and let dry without rinsing.

JADE

• Jade is cold to the touch. The term “Jade” is used generi-

cally for two materials: Nephrite and Jadeite. Nephrite comes from China and is softer than true Jadeite. Jadeite comes from Burma, Japan, Guatemala, California,

Hawaii, Russia, and Switzerland.

• Jadeite comes in various colors—green, yellow, orange, and lavender—and has a greater translucent quality.

• To test for real jade, carefully rub the tip of a knife across the bottom of the item. If the mark is white, the item is not jade. If it leaves a black mark, it may be jade.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Blakely

Capt. Theophilus Alexander Blakely, a British inventor, designed a number of rifles and projectiles in a wide variety of calibers, which were sold before the war to individual

Southern states and later to the Confederacy. At least two batteries of Blakely rifles were also sold to Union units. It is well known that South Carolina had acquired a 3.5-inch

Blakely rifle before the war, which participated in the initial bombardment of Fort Sumter.1

Less well known is the fact that Virginia had acquired a 7.5-inch Blakely rifle just before or after hostilities began. That rifle fired some 900 rounds at Union forces at Shipping

Point at the mouth of the Potomac River before being abandoned by Confederate forces in mid-1862.2 It survives today and is located in the gun park at the Washington Navy Yard.

Most Blakely-designed rifles used projectiles designed by Sir Bashley Britten, who received a British patent on the design in 1855, but was unable to obtain a U.S. patent until after the war. Britten’s projectiles are described in the next section. The Blakely rifles firing Britten projectiles used conventional square land and groove rifling. Two other projectile designs—both flanged—were used in Blakely rifles that used the shunt system of rifling. Both are actually Blakely designs, but one is called the Preston-Blakely design and the other is known as the flanged Blakely. Battlefield recoveries of the PrestonBlakely design have been noted in 3.5-inch and 4-inch calibers. In addition, an 8-inch

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Cochran

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Cochran

J. Webster Cochran was a longtime inventor of weapons and projectiles.1 He designed

2 and was granted patents on projectiles and fuzes from the 1850s through at least 1863.

His only success in terms of government purchases appears to be the family of Cochran projectiles and fuzes purchased and used very early in the war by the Union Navy. These were produced in navy calibers only, except for a 3.8-inch bolt that is in the West Point collection. The navy calibers documented for Cochrans were 3.4-inch, 5.1-inch and 6inch. There are no known surviving specimens in the 5.1-inch caliber.

Cochran designed a convex brass ring sabot that screwed on to the projectile. The sabot contained a grease ring and had numerous small holes around it. As the sabot squeezed into the rifling upon firing, grease was squeezed out to lubricate the barrel.

Fired specimens appear to have taken the rifling well and retained their sabots. It is not clear why Cochran failed to get follow-on contracts with the navy, but the complicated design probably made the Cochran shells too costly.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Read

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Read

Dr. John Read was an early pioneer in the design of rifled projectiles. Working with

Robert Parrott at West Point and independently at Fort Monroe with the army, Read experimented with several designs, before developing and patenting a shell with a ring sabot in 1856 (No. 15999). Later, but before the war began, he improved the design with a safety groove to eliminate the chipping problem on the shell body base.1 Both wrought iron and copper2 were used for making his ring sabots. Early in the war large caliber Read projectiles almost universally used wrought iron. However, a shell documented in this section confirms the shift to copper sabots some time before April 1862.

While field-caliber Read projectiles performed satisfactorily, large-caliber Read projectiles did not perform well, for several reasons:

(a) the iron sabots were too thick on many Read projectiles and would not take the rifling;

(b) many of the copper sabots on Read shells were too thin and would tear off before the projectile took the rifling; and

See All Chapters

See All Slices