90 Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Framing

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Framing

• An image or object should be matted with equal space

on top and sides and an extra 1/8 to ½ inch at the bottom for proper alignment.

• When using glass, place a mat board or spaces between the glass and the artwork to prevent humidity damage.

Special glass is available to protect art against harmful ultraviolet rays.

• Matting, adhesives, and other framing materials should be acid-free. Non acid-free materials can cause deterioration of the artwork and unsightly brown rims at the edges of the mat and everywhere adhesives are used.

FRAMING NEEDLEWORK.

• Needlework should be framed with thought given to

permanence. Avoid irreversible mountings, such as adhesives.

The English Royal Academy of Needlework studies revealed that the most damage occurs when needlework is framed under glass. Far from protecting it from dust and pollution, the glass actually speeds up fiber deterioration.

They found that non-glare glass is more damaging than regular glass, which is more damaging than no glass at all.

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Medium 9781574411638

Broun

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Broun

Lt. Col. William L. Broun became commander of the Richmond Arsenal in June

1863. It appears that he soon began to work on the redesign of rifled bolts and shells with copper ring sabots to improve their performance (and to reduce the consumption of scarce copper). Shells attributed to Broun’s designs appear on 1864 battlefields.

These designs simplified the manufacturing process by eliminating the lower bourrelet on the shell body, replacing it with a copper sabot that was wider than the shell base diameter. He attempted to improve the sabot effectiveness with lugs that were cast about one-half inch into the shell to hold the sabot firmly to the body. There is some evidence that these changes produced better performance, and manufacturing was simplified.

Large-caliber Broun shells have been recovered from two areas. The 4.2-inch caliber

Brouns have been recovered from late war Richmond-Petersburg lines and from Mobile

Bay. The larger calibers, 6.4-inch and 7.0-inch, are known to have been recovered only from the Mobile Bay area.

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Plastics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Plastics

For this section we will use the generic word plastic to describe Celluloid, Lucite, Plexiglas, Bakelite, Catalin, and other polymer acrylic products.

Celluloid, the first synthetic plastic material, was developed in the 1860s and 1870s from a formulation of nitrocellulose and camphor. It is a moldable material that was capable of low-cost production in a variety of colors.

Celluloid was made into toiletry articles, novelties, photographic film, and many other mass-produced goods.

Celluloid is highly flammable and its popularity began to wane toward the middle of the 20th century, following the introduction of plastics based entirely on synthetic polymers. Lucite and Plexiglas are trademarked names of synthetic, colorless, and highly transparent materials with high stability and good resistance to weathering and to shock. Lucite and Plexiglas can be tinted or rendered opaque by the addition of other substances. They are usually fabricated by molding into solid articles or casting into sheets. Bakelite, invented in 1907, is a phenolic resin used for making vintage radio cases, jewelry, kitchen utensils, and a myriad of other highly collectible items.

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Upholstery, Rug, and Carpet Cleaning

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Hooked Rugs

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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