90 Chapters
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Paper Collectibles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Paper Collectibles

95

• Use a bone folder to remove creases from paper docu-

ments. Begin in the center of the document and press the bone folder lightly along the back of the crease in a outward direction and toward the edge of the paper.

Frame the document when it is flat and clean.

To clean a document, put on cotton gloves and sprinkle Opaline on the soiled document. Opaline is a nonabrasive, light cleaning agent that can be obtained at art supply stores. Rub erasures lightly in a circular motion, and brush away soiled particles with a softbristle artist’s brush.

Do not glue or tape paper collectibles in an album or scrapbook. Adhesives leave permanent stains on paper.

Use paper or photo mounting corners.

Common items should be repaired with ordinary household white glue applied carefully with a toothpick. For easier application, thin the glue with water before applying. Blot any excess glue with a paper towel.

If paper collectibles become infested with bugs, seal them in plastic bags and store them in the freezer for three days.

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Leather

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Leather

85

• Massage saddle soap into scuff marks with a clean, dry

cloth. Work in circles until the scuff mark is gone. Gently buff with a soft cloth.

• The best way to preserve leather is by controlling its environment rather than altering the object itself. Avoid storing leather in excessively humid areas where mold and bacteria thrive. Likewise, leather stored in a dry area may crack or split.

• Keep leather away from heat sources, which deteriorate its protein content.

TREATING LEATHER

• Clean the leather first. Apply a small amount of castor

oil with a soft cloth pad or with your fingertips. Rub the area well and remove the excess oil carefully with a clean cloth.

• If you get an oil or grease stain on leather, quickly blot up as much of the stain as possible. Then rub pure unscented talcum powder into the stain. Work it well into the leather. Remove the talc with leather cleaner such as Lexol-pH. If the remaining stain is still unsightly, darken the leather with mink oil to match the stain.

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Baskets

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Rugs

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Whitworth

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Whitworth

Sir Joseph Whitworth designed a family of rifles and projectiles generally recognized as the most accurate and longest range of any used in the war. In a Union Army test reported in 1864, a 2.75-inch Whitworth bolt was fired 10,000 yards.1

The design was unique among Civil War projectiles. All Whitworth projectiles regardless of caliber had six concave sides with a twist matching the twist of the hexagonal rifle bore. The windage on these projectiles is smaller than that in any other period projectile: no more than about 2/1000 inch. Normal windage on large caliber projectiles ranged from 5/100 to 10/100 for rifled projectiles to as much as 20/100 for large smoothbores.2

Both Union and Confederate forces used Whitworth rifles and projectiles. The

Confederates obtained the rifles in several calibers and used the field calibers much more frequently than the Union did. Wartime provenance has been established for large caliber use by Confederates in 3.75-inch calibers. They almost received a shipment of 6.4-inch

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Brass

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Stafford

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Stafford

Little is known of the designer of the Stafford family of projectiles. He was probably well connected politically, based on the political controversy highlighted below. The projectiles were sub-caliber projectiles, meaning that the bulk of the projectile was substantially smaller than the caliber of the rifle. This is similar in concept to the sabot rounds used in current models of Abrams tanks. The concept of sub-caliber projectiles is to achieve much higher velocities at short range than full-caliber projectiles can attain, enabling the shell or bolt to penetrate deeper in a narrower space.

Stafford projectiles had brass ring sabots. Some were encased in a wood sleeve, others had a brass ring, or an enlarged head to fit the rifle bore. The sabot was a brass ring type, which was held in place by iron pins or nails driven into the metal core, into the wood casing, or between the two.

Staffords were produced in several calibers, including 5.1-inch, 6.4-inch, and 8-inch.

No survivors are known in the 8-inch caliber. One hundred 8-inch Stafford projectiles were purchased by the Union Navy and tested by the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1863 off Charleston.1 They were reported on July 27, 1863, to have performed unsatisfactorily.2 Ironically, only five days before the navy test results were reported,

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Armstrong

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Armstrong

Sir William G. Armstrong designed a family of rifles and projectiles in the 1850s that were highly prized by the British government. In fact the British government controlled the company that produced the rifles and projectiles—Elswick Ordnance Company—and would not allow any to be sold to foreign countries until they completed their rearmament program in 1861–1862.1 The British government withdrew from the company in 1862, and Confederates began to buy Armstrong rifles and projectiles.2 In 1864, the Confederates acquired several large caliber Armstrong rifles and projectiles. Included in these shipments were two 8-inch Armstrong rifles, which were mounted at Fort Caswell and Fort Fisher.

Each rifle weighed nearly eight tons.3 Tests done in England indicated these rifles would pierce the armor of the Monitor-type gunboats.4

With the Armstrong rifles came an impressive array of advanced projectiles, including shell, segmented shrapnel, armor-piercing bolts, and armor-piercing shells. The Armstrong projectiles used a shunt rifling system with brass lugs mounted in a spiral shape along the length of the projectile body.

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Maury

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Maury

General Abbot attributes two designs of large caliber bolts to Maury.1 This probably refers to Matthew F. Maury, a Confederate naval officer involved in the design and construction of Confederate gunboats.2 However, the author has not found a definitive connection between him and the design of the projectiles, except for General Abbot’s description and similar descriptions of a Maury bolt in other period documents. The

Maury bolts were first ordered for production in 1863 and orders continued to be placed until 1864, so they must have seen some action, probably along the James River.3

Both designs documented by Abbot are for smoothbore cannons and do not have sabots. One has a smooth side surface. The other has bourrelets. They have the form of a rifled bolt, and were probably intended for use in smoothbores by navy forces at short range where rifling would not be critical to flight stability. Both designs have a sizable hole from the base through the nose of the bolt. Its purpose can only be to reduce the chamber pressure on the bolt to prevent the cannon from exploding.

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Brooke

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Brooke

Cdr. John Mercer Brooke, CSN, is best known for his designs of rifled cannon and projectiles for the Confederacy. He also designed the torpedoes and armor for the CSS

Virginia and oversaw its manufacture by Tredegar Foundry.1 Brooke was so highly regarded by both sides that Union Adm. David Porter said he only regretted the loss of two officers to the Confederacy from the United States Navy: Brooke and Catesby Jones.2 Porter did not mean to be flattering with that comment. After the war he said that Brooke had done more harm to the North than any other man in the South.3

Like his early work in designing cannon, Brooke’s early projectile patterns were modified versions or outright copies of existing designs. For example, in working on projectiles for the CSS Virginia, Brooke asked for designs from the Gosport Navy Yard ordnance officer, then modified the Dahlgren pattern for a shell design. He wrote in his notes, “200 shells are being cast at the Tredegar—of my design—Dahlgren pattern serving as the basis.”4 A number of experiments were conducted using Brooke’s Dahlgren designs,

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Bronze

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Appendix A Missing and Unaccounted For

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix A

Missing and Unaccounted For

Research for this book produced tantalizing clues about projectiles that are unknown to the author and could not be documented for inclusion in the book.

This list of “missing” projectiles is provided below, together with the data source where they were identified. They are “unaccounted for” among surviving projectiles.

Hopefully others will do additional research and locate these projectiles. Some of these are field calibers, but are included as part of an effort to expand the knowledge in the field:

Caliber (In.)

2.9

3.0

3.4

3.5

3.67

3.67

3.8

4.2

4.2

4.5

4.62

4.62

4.62

4.62

5.1

5.82

5.82

6.4

6.4

7.0

7.0

7.0

7.0

7.5

Design

Hotchkiss Shell

Stafford Shell

Hotchkiss Bolt

Hotchkiss Case Shot and Shell

Hopson Shot

Stafford Shell

Schenkl Case Shot and Shell

Absterdam shell

Hotchkiss Shot

Dyer Shot

Hotchkiss Shell

Sawyer Bolts and Shells

Schenkl Canister

Schenkl Shells

Cochran Shell

Hotchkiss Shell

Parrott Bolt

Dyer Shells and Bolts2

Hopson Shot

Brooke Concussion Shell

Hotchkiss Bolts and Shells

Sawyer Shell

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Buttons

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Buttons

21

• Brass buttons will turn green when the brass plating has

worn off. Copper also becomes covered with green copper carbonate due to exposure to moisture in the air.

Remove the green by rubbing the button gently with acetic acid or any substance containing this acid (such as vinegar). Wash the button with fresh water and dry well with a hairdryer or an absorbent towel. Do not store until completely dry. If the buttons are pierced, be sure that the inside of the button is dry. This is when a hairdryer comes in handy. Gel or regular toothpaste also works, but do not use on pierced buttons. It is too difficult to remove the paste completely from the crevices.

Composite buttons are made of multiple types of materials, such as pearl on brass, metal on plastic, or celluloid on Bakelite. Clean each material using the individual instructions for that material. Use caution when dealing with varied construction.

Composition buttons are made of a mixture of substances. Polish with baby oil, mineral oil, furniture polish, or Johnson’s Neutral Self Shining Shoe Polish.

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Hotchkiss

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Hotchkiss

Andrew Hotchkiss of Connecticut developed the Hotchkiss family of projectiles and was granted his first patent on October 16, 1855. He improved the design and was granted subsequent patents on July 24, 1860, and May 14, 1861.1 The dates cast into many of his projectiles—October 9, 1855, and May 14, 1861—are somewhat confusing. The October

9 date is the date the first patent was applied for, not the date granted.2

The initial design was a smooth-sided projectile, now classified as Type I. Flame grooves were added for the Type II shells, which improved the performance of time fuzes, and for some unknown reason, they were also added to bolts. A flat-nose version with a rounded base cup was developed for case shot, identified as Type III. At the very end of the war, a flat base cup was added to the flat-nose case shot, a wooden disk was inserted between the cup and the shell, and the Wright 14-second or 16-second time fuze was added. This is known as Type IV.

In all four types, the base cup pushed into the lead band sabot, forcing it into the rifling. Because of this design, however, the base cup and the sabot often separated, creating major friendly fire hazards to forward troops. Nonetheless, in the 3-inch caliber, the Hotchkiss was the preferred projectile for the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle and saw widespread use through the end of the war and afterwards.

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Appendix C Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix C

Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Correct identification of rifled projectiles often requires accurate identification of sabot designs. This appendix provides specific information to assist the student of projectiles in identifying sabot designs of both field and large caliber rifled artillery projectiles used in the war.

The three steps to accurate sabot identification are to identify: (1) the material the sabot is made of: iron, brass, copper, lead, or papier-maché; (2) the form or shape of the sabot: ring, cup, disk, or band; and (3) the distinguishing characteristics of different sabot designs. Each step is described in more detail in the rest of this appendix.

Sabot Materials

Sabots were made of four types of materials during the war: wrought iron, lead, copper or brass, and papier-maché. Each is described below.

• Wrought Iron. Wrought iron can usually be identified by its appearance. In battlefield-recovered projectiles, the wrought iron sabot is often more corroded than the projectile body. When preserved with electrolysis, it takes on the same black color as the cast iron shell body. Wrought iron sabots were made separately and the projectile was cast around the sabot.

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