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Colorfast Fabrics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Mildew Cleaner

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Skates

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Skates

The Skates Foundry in Mobile, Alabama, manufactured both projectiles and bronze field caliber cannon for the Confederacy. They are credited with the manufacture of some very early 6.4-inch shells, which were used throughout the war by Confederate gunners in Mobile Bay. As with Selma shells, documentation indicating the individual designer of

Skates shells has not been found to date. Using the precedent of naming the Selma projectiles after the foundry, the designation of Skates is the most accurate attribution we can provide at this time.

All recovered Skates shells have been in the 6.4-inch caliber. The shells are relatively short and light in weight (65 pounds), indicating they were manufactured for rifled 32pounders. They do not have bourrelets, and have lead ring sabots pre-engraved for 5groove rifling. Recoveries of this pattern shell have been confirmed only from Mobile

Bay, although two shells of this design are reported to have been recovered in Norfolk. It is not coincidental that the only surviving 6.4-inch rifles with 5-groove rifling are three rifled 32-pounder seacoast guns located at Fort Gaines, at the mouth of Mobile Bay. These projectiles were probably manufactured before May 29, 1862. That was the date the

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Advertising Memorabilia: Metal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Sawyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Sawyer

Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

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Marble

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Cast Iron

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Cast Iron

Cast iron is an alloy of iron containing so much carbon that it is brittle and so cannot be wrought but must be shaped by casting.

Cast iron retains heat well, making it a popular choice for cooks, but it can be difficult to keep clean and sanitary.

SEASONING CAST IRON COOKWARE

• To season a new cast iron skillet or griddle (or one

that has been scoured), rub lightly with vegetable shortening. Coat both the exterior and the interior.

Heat the utensil in a 250-degree oven for two hours.

Vegetable oil is not recommended. It tends to leave a sticky coating.

• The first few times you use cast iron utensils, cook foods high in fat, such as fried chicken or bacon, to build up the seasoning.

• Wash cast iron after it has cooled with a little dishwashing liquid. According to the experts, detergents will not remove the seasoning. Do not soak the cookware.

• If any food has stuck to the surface, use a scouring pad, then rub shortening over the area. Always be sure to oven dry or air-dry your cast iron completely to avoid rust. Store uncovered.

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Bamboo Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Absterdam

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Absterdam

John Absterdam patented a number of projectile designs in 1862 and 1864. The Union

Army Absterdam shells were made in the 3-inch and 4.5-inch calibers. Two of these 4.5inch designs are included in the book, having been used in the 1864-65 RichmondPetersburg siege.

There are three designs of Absterdam projectiles: Type 1 has a lead cup sabot and two lead bourrelets; Type 2 has a lead cup sabot and one (upper) lead bourrelet; and Type 3 has a brass ring sabot with no bourrrelets. A hybrid Type 2/3 is documented in this book, with a brass ring sabot and one upper lead bourrelet.

Absterdam had contracts with at least three foundries in addition to his own foundry to manufacture his projectiles: Dickson & Zane of Philadelphia; Chase, Sharp & Thompson of Philadelphia; and A.J. Smith.1 The first 3-inch Absterdam shells were ordered by the

Union Ordnance Department from Chase, Sharp & Thompson on July 28, 1863, and delivered on February 8, 1864.2 The first 4.5-inch Absterdam projectiles were ordered by the Union Ordnance Department through Dickson & Zane on March 17, 1864, and delivered on September 27, 1864.3

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Preston-Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Preston-Blakely

Credit for sorting out the confusing story of the so-called “Preston” shells goes to

Warren Ripley. In his classic book, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Ripley traces the history of the Preston name.

“Preston” is painted on several shells photographed at the Charleston Arsenal in

1865, undoubtedly by Union Army officers who recovered them and labeled them as such. The label probably relates to the use of the shells in Blakely rifles. The particular ones with the flanged rifling were made in the Fawcett, Preston and Co. foundry in

Liverpool, England.1 Ripley diligently checked surviving Confederate records, but could find no references to Preston in the 3.5-inch and 4-inch caliber. He did find a reference to

Blakely in those calibers in the records, and confirmed that the 4-inch Blakely rifle had 6groove rifling that matched the “Preston” shape.

Subsequent research has confirmed that the patent for the “Preston” design of rifle and projectile was actually awarded to Blakely in 1863.2

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Mirrors

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Glossary

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Glossary

ANCHORED TORPEDO—a torpedo (mine) designed to float under the water or rest on the bottom of a body of water, anchored in place by a weight, cables, or ropes. A defensive weapon.

ARMY OFFICIAL RECORDS (“Army ORs” in footnotes)—officially named, War of the

Rebellion Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. A 128-volume set, published from 1880 to 1901, containing original reports and other documents prepared during the Civil War by government and military officials on both sides relating to

Union and Confederate Army actions. (See Bibliography)

ARTIFACT—a man-made object, usually associated with a period, as in Civil War artifact.

BANNERMAN’S—the major military surplus dealer who purchased huge quantities of leftover military ordnance after the Civil War, which they resold well into the twentieth century. Originally known as Francis S. Bannerman’s, later known as Bannerman and Sons.

BASE—the bottom of a projectile or torpedo.

BASE PLATE—a flat iron disk on the bottom of a canister, grape stand, or quilted grape.

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Metals: Identifying with a Magnet

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Steel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Copper

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