90 Chapters
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Upholstery, Rug, and Carpet Cleaning

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Label Removal

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Label Removal

• Products such as rubber cement solvent, Bestine sol-

vent, and Goo Gone will remove sticky labels, masking tape, and sticky residue left from labels on glass, pottery, and china.

Be very cautious when using any product on paper. Test a small area before applying the product to a label to be sure that it will not leave a greasy spot. You can easily ruin a paper collectible by using these products. I have had great luck with Goo Gone, but I still test each time I use it on paper.

For glass or china, peel away as much paper as you can.

Next, soften the residue by applying vinegar, hairspray, nail polish remover, mayonnaise, or peanut butter.

On painted surfaces, apply a hot rag or heat with a hairdryer. Be careful not to pull off the painted surface by working too quickly. You can reduce the value of a collectible item by removing the original paint.

On plastic, apply a hot rag, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter, or heat with a hairdryer set on warm.

On metal, rub gently with a dab of peanut butter.

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Postage Stamps

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

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Selma

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Selma

The Selma Naval Gun Foundry was one of five government-owned foundries that manufactured cannon for the Confederacy. It was the only one of those that could manufacture the heavy smoothbore and rifled cannon like Bellona and Tredegar.

The foundry was taken over initially by the Confederate Army in February 1863, under the command of Col. George Rains (of Rains grenade and torpedo fuze fame).1 It was soon transferred to the navy under the command of Catesby ap R. Jones. Jones had been the executive officer of the CSS Virginia in its brief history. As fate would have it, Jones was actually in command of the Virginia during the historic battle with the USS Monitor. Flag

Officer Buchanan was seriously injured during action on March 8 against the USS Congress and USS Cumberland and was removed from the ship before the Monitor engagement.2

Selma produced projectiles designed by most other Confederate designers. They also produced several types of projectiles of a design unique to the Selma Foundry. Based on his experience and former association with Cdr. John Brooke, there is a strong probability that the actual designer was Catesby Jones. However, no documentation has survived that identifies him or any other individual as actually having designed the projectiles. As a result, they are referred to as Selma projectiles.

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Doorstops

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Stafford

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Stafford

Little is known of the designer of the Stafford family of projectiles. He was probably well connected politically, based on the political controversy highlighted below. The projectiles were sub-caliber projectiles, meaning that the bulk of the projectile was substantially smaller than the caliber of the rifle. This is similar in concept to the sabot rounds used in current models of Abrams tanks. The concept of sub-caliber projectiles is to achieve much higher velocities at short range than full-caliber projectiles can attain, enabling the shell or bolt to penetrate deeper in a narrower space.

Stafford projectiles had brass ring sabots. Some were encased in a wood sleeve, others had a brass ring, or an enlarged head to fit the rifle bore. The sabot was a brass ring type, which was held in place by iron pins or nails driven into the metal core, into the wood casing, or between the two.

Staffords were produced in several calibers, including 5.1-inch, 6.4-inch, and 8-inch.

No survivors are known in the 8-inch caliber. One hundred 8-inch Stafford projectiles were purchased by the Union Navy and tested by the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1863 off Charleston.1 They were reported on July 27, 1863, to have performed unsatisfactorily.2 Ironically, only five days before the navy test results were reported,

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Whitworth

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Whitworth

Sir Joseph Whitworth designed a family of rifles and projectiles generally recognized as the most accurate and longest range of any used in the war. In a Union Army test reported in 1864, a 2.75-inch Whitworth bolt was fired 10,000 yards.1

The design was unique among Civil War projectiles. All Whitworth projectiles regardless of caliber had six concave sides with a twist matching the twist of the hexagonal rifle bore. The windage on these projectiles is smaller than that in any other period projectile: no more than about 2/1000 inch. Normal windage on large caliber projectiles ranged from 5/100 to 10/100 for rifled projectiles to as much as 20/100 for large smoothbores.2

Both Union and Confederate forces used Whitworth rifles and projectiles. The

Confederates obtained the rifles in several calibers and used the field calibers much more frequently than the Union did. Wartime provenance has been established for large caliber use by Confederates in 3.75-inch calibers. They almost received a shipment of 6.4-inch

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Quilts

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

110

Tips, Tools, & Techniques

• Test for colorfastness by placing a few drops of water

on a small corner of the fabric. Press firmly with a white towel. If the color appears on the towel, do not clean the quilt yourself. If no color appears, try again on other spots to be sure that all parts are safe. Next, try with a few drops of water and a mild detergent.

Avoid washing an old quilt in the washing machine unless the quilt is in very stable condition. The twisting and agitation can break the threads and tear the fabric.

Fill a bathtub half full with lukewarm water. Place an old sheet under the quilt to ease lifting it out of the tub. Fold in quarters and let it soak for about 30 minutes. Drain the tub without removing the quilt, then refill.

Add a half cup of mild detergent or textile soap, such as Orvus. Gently agitate. Let soak for about 30 minutes.

Drain and refill tub with cool water several times until all soap is rinsed away.

Get help to lift the quilt out of the water: it will be very heavy and the pressure can tear the fabric and break the stitches.

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Sawyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Sawyer

Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

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Preston-Blakely

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Preston-Blakely

Credit for sorting out the confusing story of the so-called “Preston” shells goes to

Warren Ripley. In his classic book, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Ripley traces the history of the Preston name.

“Preston” is painted on several shells photographed at the Charleston Arsenal in

1865, undoubtedly by Union Army officers who recovered them and labeled them as such. The label probably relates to the use of the shells in Blakely rifles. The particular ones with the flanged rifling were made in the Fawcett, Preston and Co. foundry in

Liverpool, England.1 Ripley diligently checked surviving Confederate records, but could find no references to Preston in the 3.5-inch and 4-inch caliber. He did find a reference to

Blakely in those calibers in the records, and confirmed that the 4-inch Blakely rifle had 6groove rifling that matched the “Preston” shape.

Subsequent research has confirmed that the patent for the “Preston” design of rifle and projectile was actually awarded to Blakely in 1863.2

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Rugs

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
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Fabrics and Textiles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Fabrics and Textiles

See the section on Upholstery, Rugs, and Carpet Cleaning for tips on fabric used on furniture. Also see Vintage Clothing and Textiles for information about especially delicate items.

Before taking steps yourself to preserve and care for antique fabrics, you should seek professional advice about specific conservation, cleaning, storage, and exhibition problems. Each fabric is unique and requires individual consideration. With that warning in mind, follow these general rules for fabric care.

CARE OF OLD FABRICS

• Provide a stable environment for the textile. Protect it

from rough handling, light, extreme changes of temperature and humidity, and insects. For each of these problems there is a simple remedy.

• Handling. When you must handle fabrics, clean your hands first. Remove sharp jewelry to prevent snags and tears. Do not eat, drink, or smoke near the article. Keep article away from unclean surfaces, and do not place any objects on top of it.

• Light. Light is harmful to textiles. Many older fabrics are made of cellulose (cotton and linen) and animal

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Vintage Clothing and Textiles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Vintage Clothing and Textiles

125

• Vary the way you fold textiles/clothing.

• Stuff the sleeves of coats, blouses, or dresses with acid•

free tissue in order to prevent creases.

Cover cardboard rolls with polyester or cotton batting and muslin wrapping.

Check storage areas two to three times a year for insects.

Use padded hangers that fit the shoulders of the clothing.

Do not store vintage fabrics in plastic cleaners bags or plastic storage bags. Do not use zip-locked bags for small items. Moisture buildup can cause mold and mildew.

Do not store fabrics that have been starched. They will attract silverfish and other pests.

Sugar was a popular starching material in the old days.

Remove sugar by washing the piece before storing (consult a professional for vintage fabrics). Critters love to munch on sugar-starched textiles.

Do not store or display garments in sunlight. Bright light will fade the colors.

HOW TO PAD HANGERS

• Cut white cotton sheets or muslin into strips.

• Use wooden hangers, if available, because they are stur-

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Colorfast Fabrics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

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