90 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781574414516

Bamboo Furniture

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Chrome

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Section 3 Torpedoes and Mines

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 3

Torpedoes and Mines

Note: during the war, the term “torpedo” was generally used to describe both mines and torpedoes as we know them today. Following that tradition, the torpedoes and mines described in this section will be referred to as “torpedoes.”

The Confederates were forced to invest heavily in the development and deployment of torpedoes to protect their extensive ports and riverways. Confederates could not deploy enough ships, artillery, and men to defend the extensive river and coastal areas in the

South. Even in heavily defended areas such as Mobile, Charleston, and Wilmington, torpedoes added significantly to the threat to exposed Union ships and gunboats.

Initial efforts to develop Confederate torpedo capabilities were headed by Matthew

Maury,1 who is also credited with the design of several smoothbore bolts. After he went to England, Hunter Davidson was appointed as his successor and headed the program until the end of the war.2 It was a high enough priority that Lt. John M. Brooke, later famous for his cannon and projectile designs, designed several types of torpedoes and even a torpedo boat design. He designed an anchored swaying spar torpedo and a fixed bottom torpedo called a “turtle,” that was convex, so antitorpedo boats could not grapple it off the bottom.3 It was deployed together with his swaying spar torpedo, which was said to be one of the deadliest encountered by Union ships.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Lacquered Items

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Audio Materials

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Audio Materials

The field of audio materials has been developing and changing over the last 134 years since Thomas A. Edison developed his phonograph and cylinders to convey the spoken word and music. Edison invented the first machine that could record sound in 1877 using a tinfoil cylinder. In 1886,

Alexander Graham Bell obtained several patents for a commercial talking machine called a graphaphone. He replaced

Edison’s tinfoil with wax cylinders. By 1888, Edison had perfected his phonograph using a wax cylinder.

Some definitions of audio materials are in order. Audio records include 78s, 45s, and LPs (which are long-playing phonograph records designed to be played at 33 1/3 rpm).

CD is a compact disc that is a plastic-fabricated, circular medium for recording, storing, and playing back audio, video, and computer data. DVDs used to be known as digital video discs until they became more versatile, thus the name change to digital versatile discs.

CLEANING AUDIO RECORDS, CDS,

AND DVDS

• To clean really dirty or smudged records, CDs, or DVDs,

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Mirrors

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Rugs

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574414516

Paper Collectibles

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Paper Collectibles

95

• Use a bone folder to remove creases from paper docu-

ments. Begin in the center of the document and press the bone folder lightly along the back of the crease in a outward direction and toward the edge of the paper.

Frame the document when it is flat and clean.

To clean a document, put on cotton gloves and sprinkle Opaline on the soiled document. Opaline is a nonabrasive, light cleaning agent that can be obtained at art supply stores. Rub erasures lightly in a circular motion, and brush away soiled particles with a softbristle artist’s brush.

Do not glue or tape paper collectibles in an album or scrapbook. Adhesives leave permanent stains on paper.

Use paper or photo mounting corners.

Common items should be repaired with ordinary household white glue applied carefully with a toothpick. For easier application, thin the glue with water before applying. Blot any excess glue with a paper towel.

If paper collectibles become infested with bugs, seal them in plastic bags and store them in the freezer for three days.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Obtaining a Vintage Look on Fabrics

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Fabrics and Textiles

53

• Wax. Harden the wax by applying an ice cube to the

spot. Gently scrape off as much as possible. To remove the remaining wax, place the fabric between two sheets of brown paper and press with a warm iron, moving the paper as it absorbs the wax.

Colored wax can be difficult to remove. You may wish to consult a professional dry cleaner. Or you may try to treat such stains yourself by dipping a sponge into rubbing alcohol and dabbing it on the soiled area before washing the item.

• Wine. White-wine stains can usually be removed with a hot, soapy washing.

- To treat red-wine stains, sprinkle salt on the area and

immerse the item in cold water. If the spot remains, rub it out with salt before washing the item.

- Another remedy for red wine is to saturate the area with club soda or a solution of baking soda and water.

OBTAINING A VINTAGE LOOK

ON FABRICS

TEA-DYED METHOD

Bring three gallons of tap water to a boil in a 16-quart stainless steel pot. Fill your sink with cold water and soak the fabric.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Framing

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF

Framing

• An image or object should be matted with equal space

on top and sides and an extra 1/8 to ½ inch at the bottom for proper alignment.

• When using glass, place a mat board or spaces between the glass and the artwork to prevent humidity damage.

Special glass is available to protect art against harmful ultraviolet rays.

• Matting, adhesives, and other framing materials should be acid-free. Non acid-free materials can cause deterioration of the artwork and unsightly brown rims at the edges of the mat and everywhere adhesives are used.

FRAMING NEEDLEWORK.

• Needlework should be framed with thought given to

permanence. Avoid irreversible mountings, such as adhesives.

The English Royal Academy of Needlework studies revealed that the most damage occurs when needlework is framed under glass. Far from protecting it from dust and pollution, the glass actually speeds up fiber deterioration.

They found that non-glare glass is more damaging than regular glass, which is more damaging than no glass at all.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574414516

Steel

Georgia Kemp Caraway University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638

Whitworth

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Whitworth

Sir Joseph Whitworth designed a family of rifles and projectiles generally recognized as the most accurate and longest range of any used in the war. In a Union Army test reported in 1864, a 2.75-inch Whitworth bolt was fired 10,000 yards.1

The design was unique among Civil War projectiles. All Whitworth projectiles regardless of caliber had six concave sides with a twist matching the twist of the hexagonal rifle bore. The windage on these projectiles is smaller than that in any other period projectile: no more than about 2/1000 inch. Normal windage on large caliber projectiles ranged from 5/100 to 10/100 for rifled projectiles to as much as 20/100 for large smoothbores.2

Both Union and Confederate forces used Whitworth rifles and projectiles. The

Confederates obtained the rifles in several calibers and used the field calibers much more frequently than the Union did. Wartime provenance has been established for large caliber use by Confederates in 3.75-inch calibers. They almost received a shipment of 6.4-inch

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Britten

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Britten

Sir Bashley Britten designed a lead-cupped rifled projectile and received a British patent on it in August 1855.1 Britten was unable to get an American patent on his projectile design until after the war. Some experts suspect that the U.S. Government’s anti-British sentiment caused this delay.

It may also be due to efforts by Alexander Dyer, a senior officer and eventually the

Chief of the Union Army Ordnance Department. After a trip to England just before the war, Dyer designed a very similar shell, which the Union Army Ordnance Department purchased in large numbers, even though most large caliber Dyer shells failed to explode.

It is noteworthy that Britten was allowed a U.S. patent on his design after the war, when his design was considered obsolete. It is also noteworthy that Dyer never obtained a patent on his design.

Britten’s design (and Dyer’s) had a lead cup sabot that was bonded onto the iron shell body with a hot zinc coating. The base of the shell body is rounded and often shows through the bottom of the sabot.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

Lynall Thomas

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Lynall Thomas

Not much is known about Lynall Thomas, an Englishman credited with the design of complicated rifled shells of doubtful effectiveness supplied to the Confederacy. The shell consisted of a narrow shell body with a very large head. Behind the head a lead sleeve and lead disk were cast and a midshell thick iron band put on the outside of the lead sleeve. Another lead disk separated the midshell iron band from a thick rear iron band.

Upon firing, the iron bands were forced forward on the lead sleeve, squeezing the lead disks into the rifling.

Shells of this design have been recovered in three calibers: 4.62-inch, 5.82-inch, and

6.4-inch. Almost all the shells in each caliber come from only a single area. The 4.62inch shells come from Awendaw and Charleston, South Carolina. The single 5.82-inch shell is from the West Point collection, and all of the 6.4-inch Lynall Thomas shells come from the areas around Fort Fisher and nearby Fort Caswell.

Only one complete fired specimen has been noted (the 6.4-inch shell documented in this book). It appears to have taken the rifling effectively.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411638

The Role of Heavy Explosive Ordnance in Strategic Battles

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

The Role of Heavy Explosive Ordnance in Strategic Battles

The development of heavy explosive ordnance brought awesome destructive power to the battlefield never experienced before. But that power was not fully tested or understood before deployment under actual battle conditions, and could be destructive to the user as awell as to the enemy.

Every major engagement involving heavy explosive ordnance was a learning experience for both sides. However, a few represented historic “firsts” in warfare or turning points in tactics or strategy. Sometimes these “firsts” were accomplished only with great sacrifice. In a number of cases, the tactics and strategies used were wrong, and brought disastrous results. In other cases the “lessons learned” were incorrect and reversed when tested in later battles. Notwithstanding these failures and catastrophes, by the end of the war, the tactical and strategic landscape for the use of heavy explosive ordnance was changed forever.

Described in chronological order are highlights of seven major battles or attacks in which heavy explosive ordnance produced results that led to changes in the strategy or tactics of warfare.

See All Chapters

Load more