19 Chapters
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7 Botanical Pesticides: The Novel Chemotherapeutics for Managing Plant Viruses

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF

7

Botanical Pesticides:

The Novel Chemotherapeutics for

Managing Plant Viruses

C. Jeyalakshmi,1* D. Dinakaran2 and C. Rettinassababady1

1Department of Plant Pathology, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, U.T. of Puducherry, India; 2Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women, Navalur Kuttappattu,

Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

7.1 Introduction

Viruses are the second most important plant pathogens, after fungi. They cause severe yield losses and substantially lessen the quality of crop products. The yield losses due to plant viral diseases vary from 5 to 100% depending upon disease severity, susceptibility of cultivars and vector population. By the turn of the millennium, there were as many as 675 plant virus species recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The estimated losses in rice yields have been calculated as $1.5 billion in Southeast Asia (Hull, 2002),

$63 million has been lost in apple yields in the

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13 Biocontrol Agent Formulations for Sustainable Disease Control of Plants

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF

13

Biocontrol Agent Formulations for

Sustainable Disease Control of Plants

Jayaraj Jayaraman1* and Angela T. Alleyne2

1Department

of Life Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,

Trinidad and Tobago; 2Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences,

The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados

13.1 Introduction

Plant pathogens have posed a major threat to food production ever since the commercialization of agriculture globally. The intensification of agriculture has led to increased dependence on agrochemicals as the sole reliable method of plant protection leaving other alternatives less popular in terms of achieving fast and timebound solutions. However, increasing the use of chemicals has already yielded multiple ill effects on the environment and on consumers directly and indirectly, and, additionally, has favoured the emergence of pesticide resistance among pathogens. Furthermore, overuse of chemicals has drastically changed the economic scenario of crop production, leading to rises in production costs and contributing to the escalation of food prices and commodities all over the world – the worst affected areas being the underdeveloped and the developing nations. On the other side, there is a rising positive trend towards organic crop production methods due to everincreasing public preference and demand for foods grown from chemical-free or chemicalminimal environments. Emergence of new pathogens, particularly the most fastidious ones, is increasing in recent years, which demands

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15 Ecofriendly Management of Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxin Contamination

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF

15

Ecofriendly Management of

Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxin

Contamination

M. Surekha, V. Krishna Reddy and S.M. Reddy

Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India

15.1 Introduction

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of filamentous fungi, which infest food commodities during different stages of food production to consumption. Statistics reveal that every year approximately 25% of world food grains are affected by variable levels of mycotoxins, which leads to considerable national economic loss (Muller et al., 1998). Outbreaks of mysterious diseases in different parts of the world of unknown aetiology probably may be attributed to mould growth and mycotoxin contamination of food and feeds. The problem of mycotoxin contamination and health hazards was discussed in detailed by Bennett and Klich (2003). Mycotoxin contamination is a worldwide problem.

Hence, the limitation of mycotoxin contamination is of utmost importance. Different countries have created guidelines to regulate the maximum acceptable limits of mycotoxin levels in foods and feed. The mycotoxin incidence mainly depends on environmental conditions both at the preharvest and postharvest stages of food grain production. Hence, the control of mycotoxin problem has become a task of Herculean proportions.

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8 Role of Medicinal Plants and their Metabolites for the Management of Plant Pathogens

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF

8

Role of Medicinal Plants and their Metabolites for the Management of Plant Pathogens

Rashmi Thakare,1 Dnyaneshwar Rathod2 and Mahendra Rai3*

1Wageningen

University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands; of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati, India;

3Laboratório de Química Biológica, Instituto de Química, Unicamp Cidade

Universitária ‘Zefferino Vaz’, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

2Department

8.1 Introduction

Agriculture is the world’s largest economic sector and the majority of the world population is involved in this sector in some capacity. Agriculture plays an important role in the survival of human beings as well as animals. It is the only important means for the fulfilment of human basic needs, that is food, clothing and shelter. It has been found that there is a greater capacity for multiple crop production in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In recent years the demand for food crops has increased tremendously because of the growing population, But agricultural productivity is profoundly reduced due to plant pathogens and insect pests. Major disease outbreaks have resulted in food shortages, particularly in the developing countries.

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17 Bioactive Natural Products for Managing Peronosporomycete Phytopathogens

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF

17

Bioactive Natural Products for Managing Peronosporomycete

Phytopathogens

M. Tofazzal Islam,1 M. Motaher Hossain2 and

M. Mahfuzur Rahman3*

1Department

of Biotechnology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural

University, Gazipur, Bangladesh; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Bangabandhu

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh;

3WVU Extension Service, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

17.1 Introduction

Intensive agriculture is heavily dependent on synthetic pesticides for pest management. This high pesticide use in agriculture causes environmental pollution and is a serious threat to the lives of non-target organisms including humans.

The deleterious effects of pesticides on various terrestrial and aquatic organisms have been documented in many reports (Dayan et al., 1999).

On the other hand, diverse classes of natural products discovered from plants and environmental microorganisms have been found to inhibit growth and reproduction of plant pests.

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