20 Chapters
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14 Global Identifi cation of Invasive Species: Th e CABI Invasive Species Compendium as a Resource

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF

14

Global Identification of Invasive

Species: The CABI Invasive

Species Compendium as a

Resource

Hilda Diaz-Soltero1 and Peter R. Scott2

1USDA, Office of the Secretary, Washington, DC, USA; 2CAB

International, Wallingford, UK

Abstract

Introduction

The number, spread and impact of invasive species in the latter half of the 20th century has been without historical precedent. Now, as human activity causes a precipitous rise in greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. CO2), there is growing concern that climate change may also be a significant, long-term driver enhancing invasive species introduction and spread. New and more powerful tools that facilitate linking invasive species and climate change are required to identify and manage these consequences. One such tool, which exploits a wide range of traditional and social media, is the Invasive Species

Compendium, or ISC. The ISC is a scientific, web-based encyclopedia that compiles the latest information on the invasive species that have the most negative impacts on the environment, the economy and/or animal or human health. The information in the ISC, updated weekly with the latest scientific findings, can be used; to infer future climate change impacts on an invasive species; to understand the potential environmental and/or economic impacts of the species, and to identify ways to control and manage the species in question. This chapter discusses the value and efficacy of the ISC, with a particular emphasis on its application in a globally warmed future.

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16 Identifying Climate Change as a Factor in the Establishment and Persistence of Invasive Weeds in Agricultural Crops

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF

16

Identifying Climate Change as a

Factor in the Establishment and

Persistence of Invasive Weeds in

Agricultural Crops

Antonio DiTommaso,1 Qin Zhong2 and David R.

Clements3

1Department

of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University,

Ithaca, New York, USA; 2Department of Ecology, College of

Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou,

China; 3Biology Department, Trinity Western University, Langley,

British Columbia, Canada

Abstract

Climate change may lead to extensive shifts in invasive weed distributions by impacting their colonization and persistence in new habitats. These alterations will require an enhanced capacity to predict the future range of these species and the implementation of effective management strategies.

This is particularly critical for agroecosystems where climate-induced changes in the composition and impact of weedy species are likely to add great uncertainty to the biodiversity, stability and productivity of these systems. In recent years, various modelling approaches have been employed to examine the current and potential distributions of invasive weeds at a range of scales in response to projected climate change. This chapter details the efforts under way to map the distributions of invasive weed species based on climate change projections for the USA. The chapter also identifies specific agricultural systems that are most vulnerable to invasion in a changing climate. It concludes with a brief discussion of the uncertainties, future directions and challenges of current modelling approaches and

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11 Invasive Plants in a Rapidly Changing Climate: An Australian Perspective

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF

11

Invasive Plants in a Rapidly

Changing Climate: An Australian

Perspective

Bruce L. Webber,1,2 Rieks D. van Klinken3 and John

K. Scott1

1CSIRO

Ecosystem Sciences and Climate Adaptation Flagship,

Wembley, Western Australia, Australia; 2School of Plant Biology,

The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia,

Australia; 3CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland,

Australia

Abstract

Invasive plants in Australia are currently among the greatest threats to native biological diversity and a significant cost to agriculture. The impact of climate change is projected to be particularly significant for

Australia and will add to and change the impact of invasive plants on natural and managed ecosystems. Australia is a large country incorporating a wide variety of climates that often experience significant disturbance events, is likely to undergo significant land-use change with climate change and has a long history of some

26,000 plant species introductions and about 2700 established alien plant species.

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3 Climate Change and Plant Pathogen Invasions

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF

3

Climate Change and Plant

Pathogen Invasions

Karen A. Garrett,1,3 Sara Thomas-Sharma,1 Greg A.

Forbes2 and John Hernandez Nopsa1,3

1Department

of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University,

Manhattan, Kansas, USA; 2International Potato Center, Beijing,

China; 3Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Bruce,

ACT, Australia

Abstract

Climate Change and Pathogen

Invasions: An Overview

Climate has an important effect on plant disease and the probability of plant pathogen invasions, through effects on hosts and pathogen vectors as well as on the pathogens themselves. Aerially dispersed pathogens are an important group of plant pathogens, and their dispersal and invasion may be modified by changes in wind patterns.

Pathogens vectored by arthropods may be affected by weather impacts on their vectors, often through the filter of vector behaviour.

Soilborne pathogens have more challenges to rapid invasion, but human transport can introduce them quickly into novel settings.

For pathogens, variability within a species may be of great importance, and many important pathogen invasions are invasions of new genotypes of ubiquitous pathogen species. The connectivity of a landscape for pathogen movement is determined by the spatial distribution of host, pathogen and environmental conditions, and connectivity may also be affected by climate change.

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4 Analysis of Invasive Insects: Links to Climate Change

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF

4

Analysis of Invasive Insects: Links to Climate Change

Andrew Paul Gutierrez1,2 and Luigi Ponti1,3

1Center

for the Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Systems

(CASAS Global NGO), Kensington, California, USA; 2Division of

Ecosystem Science, College of Natural Resources, University of

California, Berkeley, California, USA; 3Laboratorio Gestione

Sostenibile degli Agro-Ecosistemi (UTAGRI-ECO), Agenzia

Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l’Energia e lo Sviluppo

Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Centro Ricerche Casaccia,

Rome, Italy

Abstract

Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many species, to increase the invasion of new areas by exotic species and, in some cases, to lead to species extinction. This chapter reviews some of the links between invasive insects and climate change. The effects of climate change on insect pest populations can be direct, through impacts on their physiology and behaviour, or indirect, through biotic interactions (i.e. bottom-up and top-down effects). Anthropogenic climate and global change is expected to be a major driver in the introduction, establishment, distribution, impact and changes in the efficacy of mitigation strategies for invasive species. To address these problems, we must be able to predict climate change impacts on species distribution and abundance. Commonly used ecological niche modelling approaches have implicit assumptions about the biology of the target species and attempt to characterize the ecological niche using aggregate weather and other factors in the area of recorded distribution.

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