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14 Vanguard Nano(bio)sensor Technologies Fostering the Renaissance of Agriculture

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

14

Vanguard Nano(bio)sensor

Technologies Fostering the

Renaissance of Agriculture

Amina Antonacci,1 Fabiana Arduini2 and Viviana

Scognamiglio1*

Institute of Crystallography, National Research Council, Monterotondo,

Italy; 2Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of

Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

1

14.1 Introduction

In the report, The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and

Agriculture, published in 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the

United Nations (FAO) stated:

Land and water resources are central to agriculture and rural development, and are intrinsically linked to global challenges of food insecurity and poverty, climate change adaptation and mitigation, as well as degradation and depletion of natural resources that affect the livelihoods of millions of rural people across the world.

(FAO, 2011)

In recent years, the challenge of assuring adequate food worldwide has never been harder due to demographic pressure, climate change, and the increased competition for resources, especially in developing countries such as Africa and Asia, where almost 1 billion people are undernourished. The agricultural industry has handled these increasing constraints producing massive food volumes by immoderately exploiting practices that have been used without considering their impact on the environment and human wellbeing. In fact, farming techniques have been oriented towards the indiscriminate use of labour and resources, high-tech machinery, and pesticides in the cultivation of crops to achieve an augmented profit, causing an abuse of the soil and at the same time triggering huge pollution levels in different environmental segments. Watercourses and related ecosystems are facing worrying levels of pollution and degradation due to intense farming that is causing reduced quality, biodiversity injury, water scarcity, damage to territories,

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8 Factors Affecting the Fate, Transport, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

8

Factors Affecting the Fate,

Transport, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Sudheer K. Yadav,1 Jai Singh Patel,1 Gagan Kumar,2

Arpan Mukherjee,1 Anupam Maharshi,2 Birinchi K.

Sarma,2* Surendra Singh1 and Harikesh B. Singh2

Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;

Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India

1

2

8.1 Introduction

The basic need for the current scenario is to face the global problem of production, food security and sustainability in constantly changing climatic conditions. The exhaustive use of agrochemicals to increase production has polluted the ground­ water and topsoil. A significant increase in food production is compulsory, but we have to ensure minimal damage to the environment by using new approaches.

One of the new approaches, the use of nanotechnology in the agricultural sector, is very important. The synthesis of nanomaterials through nanotechnology helps slow the release of pesticides and fertilizers, to reduce dosage and waste

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18 Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

18

Role of Nanotechnology in Insect Pest Management

Deepika Chauhan,1 N.N. Singh2 and Vijay Kumar Mishra2*

Department of Entomology, College of Horticulture, Uttarakhand, India;

Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Banaras Hindu

University, Varanasi, India

1

2

18.1 Introduction

A chief consideration for population development is the pertinent need for a boost in food production. A huge proportion of people living in developing countries face the problem of food scarcity as a consequence of ecological forces, namely, rainstorms, floods and droughts on agriculture (Joseph and Morrison, 2006).

Correspondingly, farming and agricultural production are hampered by a number of abiotic and biotic factors. For example, insect pests, diseases and weeds cause substantial injury to prospective agricultural production. Conversely, herbivorous insects, one of the major obstacles in sustainable food production, are said to be accountable for devastating one-fifth of the world’s total crop production annually and losses can occur in the field as well as during storage (Oerke, 2006).

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13 Positive and Negative Effects of Nanotechnology

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

13

Positive and Negative Effects of Nanotechnology

Amira S. Soliman*

Natural Resources Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

13.1 Introduction

New technologies are always applied in an area such as agriculture to improve the

­production of crops. For the last decade or so, nanomaterials have been widely used in the world, such as the use of nanoparticles in agriculture, with the particles having certain valuable effects on the crops (Morla et al., 2011; Mishra et al., 2014). Nanoparticles have enhanced interaction, due to an increase in each of the following: reactive area; specific surface area; or responsiveness of these particles along the particle surfaces.

Nanotechnology can provide solutions to increasing agricultural productivity and decreasing environmental problems (Mishra and Singh, 2015; Mishra et al., 2017).

With the use of nanoparticles and nanopowders, researchers can produce controlledor delayed-release fertilizers (Roghayyeh et al., 2010; Kottegoda et al., 2011). On the other hand, there is now extensive argument about the hazards of releasing nanomaterials into the environment (USEPA, 2007), so many researchers are operating with increasing awareness of this topic in order to evaluate the potentially negative effects on the environment and on human health (Ruffini and Roberto, 2009). Therefore, this chapter highlights the importance of nanotechnology in improving agricultural productivity, and its ability to improve plant growth under normal and environmental stresses. Further, it will also shed light on some of the negative effects of nanotechnology that affect plants in particular and the environment in general.

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9 Nanotechnology: Comprehensive Understanding of Interaction, Toxicity and the Fate of Biosynthesized Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF

9

Nanotechnology: Comprehensive

Understanding of Interaction,

Toxicity and the Fate of

Biosynthesized Nanoparticles in the Agroecosystem

Rahul Singh Rajput,1 Jyoti Singh,2 Prachi Singh,1

Manoj Kumar Chitara,1 Ratul Moni Ram,1 Sandhya

Mishra3* and Harikesh B. Singh1

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 3Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna

Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

1

9.1 Introduction

The concept of nanotechnology was first given by American theoretical physicist Richard Feynman, 1959 in his classic talk ’There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom’

(Feynman, 1960). The term ’nanotechnology’ was first coined by Norio Taniguchi

(Taniguchi, 1974). It is the science of manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular and supermolecular level. The Royal Society defines nanotechnology as ‘the design, characterization, production, application of structures, devices, and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale’ (RSRAE, 2004). The National Nanotechnology

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