24 Chapters
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20 Immunization and Tannins in Livestock Enteric Methane Amelioration

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20

Immunization and Tannins in

Livestock Enteric Methane

Amelioration

Yutaka Uyeno*

Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan

Abstract

The complexity of the rumen microbial ecosystem supports the efficient conversion of various carbohydrates to volatile fatty acids for fulfilling host energy requirement via stepwise disposal of hydrogen (H2) through the reduction of carbon dioxide

(CO2) to methane (CH4). Although, this mechanism is indispensable for rumen homeostasis, CH4 production in ruminants has attracted a great deal of attention due to its contribution to the greenhouse gas effect and global warming. Various strategies have therefore been considered for its mitigation.

Rumen methanogen targeting vaccination is a promising means of reducing CH4 emissions by decreasing the number or activity of rumen methanogens. However, trials of this strategy have provided inconsistent results, and need for further consideration of the composition, function and microbial interactions within the ecosystem. Alternatively, to establish a more efficient way for the mitigation of CH4 emission, systematic intervention in rumen microbial populations by a combination of vaccination and other chemical means may also be feasible. Although some of the CH4 abatement strategies have shown efficacy in vivo, more research is needed to make any of these approaches applicable to animal production systems. This chapter provides the background to the diversity and plasticity of functions of the rumen bacterial

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16 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Control of Methane Emissions from Ruminants

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16

Thermodynamic and Kinetic

Control of Methane Emissions from Ruminants

Richard A. Kohn*

University of Maryland, College Park, USA

Abstract

CH4 emissions occur directly from animal digestion (enteric) and from animal waste that is stored under anaerobic conditions. In both regards, CH4 emissions depends on kinetic and thermodynamic factors. With kinetic control, the profile of products formed depends on the relative rates of the different competing reactions. In turn, the rates of reactions depend on substrate concentrations and enzyme activities, and these enzyme activities depend on microbial growth or enzyme synthesis. With thermodynamic control, which pathway branches are available and the direction of metabolite flow depends on the concentrations of reactants and products. Biologists have focused on controlling the kinetic elements of fermentation such as enzyme function, microbial activity, gene expression or provision of substrates. However, fermentation is often controlled by thermodynamics.

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10 Carbon Sequestration and Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with Climate Change

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10

Carbon Sequestration and

Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with

Climate Change

C. Devendra*

Consulting Tropical Animal Production Systems Specialist,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract

Carbon sequestration is an important pathway to stabilize the environment with minimum effects of climate change. Farming systems provide a non-compensated service to society by removing atmospheric carbon generated from fossil fuel combustion, feed production, land restoration, deforestation, biomass burning and drainage of wetlands.

The resultant increase in the global emissions of carbon is calculated at 270 Gt, and increasing at the rate of 4 billion tonnes year–1. Strategies to maximize carbon sequestration through enhanced farming practices, particularly in crop–animal systems, are thus an important priority to reduce global warming. These pathways also respond to agricultural productivity in the multifaceted, less favoured rainfed environments. Sustainable animal-agriculture requires an understanding of crop–animal interactions and integrated natural resource management (NRM), demonstrated in the development of underestimated silvopastoral systems (tree crops and ruminants).

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15 Enteric Methane Emission: Status, Mitigation and Future Challenges – An Indian Perspective

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15

Enteric Methane Emission:

Status, Mitigation and Future

Challenges – An Indian

Perspective

Raghavendra Bhatta,* P.K. Malik and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

Atmospheric CH4 is increasing at a rate of

1% per annum. To stabilize this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, global CH4 production needs to be reduced by 10–20%. Ruminants fed on low-quality feed/fodder produce over

75% of the CH4 generated by ruminants worldwide. Strategic supplementation to improve digestive efficiency in these animals could halve this CH4 production per unit of feed consumed. Supplementation to improve the efficiency of feed utilization coupled with increased product output may thus reduce CH4 production per unit of milk or meat by a factor of 4–6. The dietary/ nutritional strategy that improves productivity with no potential negative effects on livestock health and production is cost-effective and has a better chance of being adopted. Other strategies (biotechnologies, additives) are promising, but the diversity and plasticity of the functions of the rumen bacterial and methanogenic communities may be the limiting factor for their successful application. In addition, the environmental impacts of strategies should also be taken into consideration. A global vision of production systems that considers all greenhouse gas emissions from the animal up to the farm scale, as well as

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1 Overview

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1

Overview

C.S. Prasad,* P.K. Malik and R. Bhatta

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

1.1 Livestock Sector

Worldwide livestock are an integral component of agriculture that contribute directly or indirectly to the populace by providing food, value-added products, fuel and transport, enhancing crop production and generating incomes, livelihoods, etc. In addition, livestock also diversify production and income, provide year-round employment and reduce risk. Livestock play an important role in crop production, especially in developing countries, through providing farmyard manure and draught power to cultivate around 40% of arable land. There are 1526 million cattle and buffalo and 1777 million small ruminants in the world (FAO,

2011). Worldwide, these animals are scattered under grazing (30%), rainfed mixed (38.5%), irrigated mixed (30.15%) and landless/industrial (1.15%) production systems. There are interregional differences, too, in the distribution of livestock, attributed to the agroecological features, human population density and cultural norms. SubSaharan Africa, Latin America and the Near

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