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22 Feed-based Approaches in Enteric Methane Amelioration

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22

Feed-based Approaches in

Enteric Methane Amelioration

P.K. Malik,* R. Bhatta, N.M. Soren, V. Sejian, A.

Mech, K.S. Prasad and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

22.1 Introduction

Mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants is necessary not only from the global warming point of view but also for saving dietary energy. Livestock being the significant contributors to the anthropogenic

CH4 pool have remained the prime target of global research for the past two decades, in order to find suitable, sustainable and economical possibilities of reducing enteric

CH4 emission. The adoption of a particular strategy by the stakeholders depends on the input cost, economic status, toxicity to host/ inhabiting microbes, mitigation potential and persistency in long run. Among all the available options, feed-based intervention seems remarkable, and can be tried anywhere by making little alterations to the available feed resources and prevailing feeding practices. This chapter deliberates the pros and cons of various nutritional interventions, along with their future prospects to reduce enteric CH4 emission. Issues like necessity of methanogenesis in the rumen, the feasibility of reducing livestock numbers and cutting down emissions, and the expected reimbursements that arise from this practically feasible reduction, are well debated in the chapter.

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7 Proteomics in Studying the Molecular Mechanism of Fibre Degradation

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Proteomics in Studying the

Molecular Mechanism of Fibre

Degradation

N.K. Singh*

University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, USA

Abstract

The degradation of plant cell walls by ruminants is of major economic importance in the developed as well as the developing world. Rumen fermentation and degradation of cell wall relies on the cooperation between the microorganisms that produce fibrolytic enzymes and the host animal, which provides an anaerobic fermentation chamber. From the 19th century, the efficiency with which the rumen microbiota degrades fibre has been the subject of extensive research. In this chapter, we will discuss various proteomic approaches such as protein fractionation (chromatography, isoelectric focusing), protein separation

(two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), in-gel digestion to peptides (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, mass spectrometry or electrospray mass spectrometry), peptide separation (two-dimensional liquid chromatography), complex protein solution digestion to peptides (electrospray ionization or MALDI-tandem MS) and proteomics of fibrolytic bacteria, which can be used to improve our knowledge of the functional framework of plant cell wall degradation in the rumen.

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5 Nutritional Strategies for Minimizing Phosphorus Pollution from the Livestock Industry

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5

Nutritional Strategies for

Minimizing Phosphorus Pollution from the Livestock Industry

P.P. Ray* and K.F. Knowlton

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA

Abstract

5.1 Introduction

Livestock manure traditionally has been considered and used as a valuable resource by farmers to improve crop production.

Livestock manure is rich in nutrients

(nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and thus has been land applied to enrich soils. But land application of manure nutrients in excess of crop requirements can lead to saturated soil and loss of nutrients to surface water via runoff. Environmental concerns with P from animal agriculture are significant because livestock manure has always been land applied to meet crops’ N requirement, resulting in P application in excess of crops’

P requirement. The problem is aggravated with the intensification of livestock production, and now animal agriculture has been identified as a primary source of water quality impairment in many regions. But intensification and continuous advancement of livestock production is required to meet the increasing demand of food supply to feed a growing global population. Therefore, management strategies are needed that will improve livestock production while supporting the environmental and social pillars of sustainability. Nutritional strategies are economically and environmentally efficient tools to reduce P excretion by livestock. This chapter discusses nutritional strategies including precision feeding, phase feeding and approaches to improve feed P availability.

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14 Indigenous Livestock Resources in a Changing Climate: Indian Perspective

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14

Indigenous Livestock Resources in a Changing Climate: Indian

Perspective

S.P.S. Ahlawat, Pushpendra Kumar,* Kush

Shrivastava and N.R. Sahoo

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

Abstract

14.1 Introduction

Biological diversity, the variability of life on earth, exists in the form of different species and breeds within the animal kingdom. This diversity is created in the process of molecular/biochemical/metabolic reactions, and acts as a critical measure of adaptation in changing climatic conditions. Indigenous breeds have adapted to climatic variations since time immemorial, and hence have acquired unique traits that make them suitable in given agroclimatic zones; for example, the Indian cattle breeds,

Tharparkar and Sahiwal, are heat and tick resistant. Similar cases have also been observed worldwide in Asia, Africa, Europe,

Latin America, North America and the south-west Pacific region, having a total of

1144, 1300, 345, 104 and 108 breeds of major livestock species, respectively. Native breeds, namely N’Dama cattle, Red Massai sheep, etc., have developed trypanosomiasis resistance and gastrointestinal nematode tolerance by continuous natural selection.

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24 Summary

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Summary

P.K. Malik,* R. Bhatta, M. Saravanan and L.

Baruah

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the full content of this book where contributors have addressed various aspects of livestock production visà-vis climate change. Improving livestock production and productivity is the need of the hour to accomplish the ever increasing demand of the populace. Climate change appears to be a major constraint in this endeavour as it severely affects livestock directly or indirectly. Further, livestock itself is accountable for the climatic variations and negative environmental complications of climate change by dispensing large quantities of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

The implications of climate change on livestock, the involvement of livestock in climate change, mitigation approaches and adaptation strategies for minimizing the adverse impact and reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions debated in the various chapters of this book are summarized here.

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