843 Chapters
Medium 9781475811940

Fraser and the Cheerleader: Values and the Boundaries of Student Speech

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

PATRICIA A. L. EHRENSAL

ABSTRACT: Student speech has and continues to be a contested issue in schools. The Supreme Court ruled in Tinker that students do not shed their rights at the schoolhouse gate; in the Kuhlmeier and Fraser decisions, however, the Court gave school officials greater latitude in regulating student speech, especially when it bears the imprimatur of the school. However, in its Frederick decision, the Court established school officials as the arbiters of the meaning of student speech. This article explores the underlying values in schools that rejected the speech of Fraser while accepting the speech act of cheerleaders’ dance routines. It examines how the interpretation of these speech acts by school officials contributes to gender reproduction, with all the inequalities imposed.

Student “free speech” rights in public school settings have and continue to be a contested issue. In its landmark decision in Tinker v. Des Moines (1969), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that children do not shed their rights at the schoolhouse gate. However, in the Bethel School District v. Fraser (1986) and Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988) decisions, the Court gave school officials greater latitude in regulating student speech, especially when it bears the imprimatur of the school. Furthermore, in its more recent Morse v. Frederick (2007) decision, the Court established school officials as the arbiters of the meaning of student speech. Thus, in the school context, teachers and administrators (adults) interpret the speech of students (children) and, on the basis of that interpretation, determine if the speech is inappropriate (and therefore questioned) or appropriate (and therefore left unquestioned).

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Medium 9781475817737

Attitude Toward Visionary Leadership

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

SANDRA J. LESOURD1

SUSAN TRACZ2

MARILYN L. GRADY3

ABSTRACT: Typologies of leadership style are emerging from naturalistic studies conducted by researchers at school sites. Through extensive observation and interviews with members of schools, researchers have accomplished a specific description of the values and behavioral attributes of leaders. For example, Bennis and Nanus (1985), Blumberg and Greenfield (1980), Deal and Kennedy (1982), Lightfoot (1983), and Wolcott (1973) have presented informative studies of schools and organizations. These analyses of leadership in context have contributed to the identification of notable, effective leadership qualities. In addition, the genre of effective school research clarified the existence of variation in the principals’ influence upon school quality (Leithwood and Montgomery, 1982; Purkey and Smith, 1982). Investigation of school effectiveness confirmed that some principals are more influential than others in making improvements. Some develop reputations as dynamic leaders who foster institutional change, while others are primarily concerned with routine maintenance functions.

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Medium 9781475817133

Total Staff Development: Do Not Begin Dropout Prevention Without It

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

DON KELLER1

SANDY ADDIS2

R. WAYNE FOWLER3

ABSTRACT: There is no doubt that the student-at-risk problem is a national, state, and local problem; however the success of any at-risk program lies with the entire school staff that comes in contact with the at-risk youth. As school philosophies have changed to meet the needs of these youth, so must the staff development programs. Educators can no longer depend on the colleges and universities to provide the “expertise” that will be required to meet the unique needs of this specialized population or to update those educators who received their degrees or training years before the current emphasis on dropout prevention. Current staff development programs must have support “at the top” that filters down to everyone who comes in contact with the at-risk student. Staff development programs must (1) address the need for individualized, personally-delivered solutions and assistance to at-risk youth, (2) provide solutions that educators believe in because of personal input, (3) reflect the major change in the mission/philosophy of American education, (4) promote the at-risk student’s self-acceptance, and (5) effectively communicate to educators the priorities placed on dropout prevention.

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Medium 9781475811834

The Relationship Between Adequate Yearly Progress and the Quality of Professional Development

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Lori A. Wolff

Susan S. McClelland

Stephanie E. Stewart

The Relationship Between Adequate Yearly Progress and the Quality of Professional Development

ABSTRACT: Based on publicly available data, the study examined the relationship between adequate yearly progress status and teachers’ perceptions of the quality of their professional development. The sample included responses of 5,558 teachers who completed the questionnaire in the 2005–2006 school year. Results of the statistical analysis show a significant relationship between adequate yearly progress status and teachers’ agreement that professional development activities (1) advance teachers’ understanding of effective instructional strategies derived from scientifically based research; (2) forward teachers’ understanding of effective instructional strategies for improving student academic achievement; (3) are developed with extensive participation of teachers, administrators, and parents in the school of district; and (4) provide training to help teachers effectively use technology in the classroom to improve instruction and learning.

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Medium 9781475817195

Levels of Environmental Uncertainty of a Site-Based Management School within a Minority/Majority Context

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

ABSAEL ANTELO1

MARTHA N. OVANDO2

ABSTRACT: The focus of this study was the perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) of teachers in two selected elementary schools in a minority/majority context. It attempted to determine the sources of uncertainty that are perceived by teachers in a site-based management (SBM) elementary school and a non-site-based management elementary school. Specific items were examined to determine which indistrict and out-district matters were related to uncertainty and to explore whether or not the two groups of teachers in the selected schools were different regarding their perceived environmental uncertainty. A basic causal-comparative design was employed and the Perceived Environmental Uncertainty Index (PEUI) developed by Singh (1991) was used to collect data. Means, standard deviations and f-tests were calculated to quantify and summarize the data. Findings indicate that the PEU levels for the SBM school were lower than that of the non-SBM school; specific in-district and out-district items rated as most unclear and significant are different for both schools. However, both schools were concerned with the impact of state legislature on job. There is a significant difference in in-district PEU, out-of-district PEU and total PEU between the two schools. These results seem to suggest that site-based management is a viable alternative for reducing and coping with environmental uncertainty. However, further research needs to focus on other levels of school following a SBM approach. Additional studies should address correlations between perceived environmental uncertainty and student success.

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