66 Chapters
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W. KRAEMER: The dangers of unrecognized countertransference

Karnac Books ePub

W. P. KRAEMER

The analytical relationship consists of various layers in depth. One of these may be seen as the layer of equality, and on this the transference/counter-transference dynamism has its main field of action. The idea of the twin pair is derived from Jung’s thesis in which thinking as well as feeling in opposites features. Any attempt to leave out the counter-transference in the contemplation of the relationship as a whole strikes me as alien to the way in which analytical psychologists look at things.

The psychoanalysts, who, on the whole, were much earlier aware of the counter-transference phenomenon, used to regard it as an unavoidable but undesirable element in analysis. Money-Kyrle (1956), in his recent excellent contribution to the subject, says (p. 360): ‘We used to think of it [counter-transference] mainly as a personal disturbance to be analysed away in ourselves. We now also think of it as having its causes, and effects, in the patient and therefore as an indication of something to be analysed in him.’ The author thus confirms the impression one gains from earlier papers by Paula Heimann (1950), Margaret Little (1951), and others, that counter-transference is, in fact, unreservedly accepted as an integral part of psychoanalytical procedure. Money-Kyrle still maintains in his article that ‘the discovery that counter-transference can be usefully employed does not imply that it has ceased ever to be a serious impediment’. Yet a litde later (p. 361) he describes the ideal condition of analysis as one in which ‘the analyst’s counter-transference feelings will be confined to that sense of empathy with the patient on which his insight is based’. I feel that this is a most important statement which, perhaps, shows that the author is moving towards a position where the negative aspect may eventually seem less important to him than the helpful one.

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M. FORDHAM: Counter-transference

Karnac Books ePub

MICHAEL FORDHAM

In getting up to open a symposium that is to continue next month, I am reminded of another one some years ago on archetypes and internal objects. Then it was decided that a psychoanalyst and an analytical psychologist should make parallel statements on each topic without reference to each other, to see what emerged in the discussion.

I do not believe that our committee altogether realized that they had asked the same speakers to begin again and, I believe, in the same order, but here the similarity virtually ends. For my part I could not say that what I said then was influenced at all by reading psychoanalytic literature, for everything worth while that had been said about archetypes had been written by Jung, and it was quite unclear whether his theory had any relevance to that of internal objects. This time the picture is radically different.

Starting from a critical study of Jung’s formulations, attempts have been made and are continuing to be made by several analysts to supplement his conceptions and to describe practice in relation to their own thinking. These researches have led to study of the writings of psychoanalysts who have developed concepts much nearer to our own than heretofore, and it has been possible to hold discussions with them. These I take to be one origin of this symposium.

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M. FORDHAM: On terminating analysis

Karnac Books ePub

MICHAEL FORDHAM

During the last ten years or so I have become more and more impressed with the importance of how an analysis ends. Since my ideas have not crystallized sufficiently, I have made a framework for discussion to take place: sometimes I shall simply make headings and sometimes expand briefly.

To start with, the distinction between an analysis that stops and one that ends is helpful. What is the difference ?

By stopping is meant a one-sided separation. The following factors may enter into it:

(a) Financial stringency. In this situation the patient will not or cannot continue to pay money for what he receives;

(b) Change of work essential to the patient’s career, involving moving to a place from which the analyst cannot be reached;

(c) Overt or latent delusional transference;

(d) Overt or latent delusional counter-transference;

(e) Termination by the analyst because further analysis is known to be fruitless.

Ending, on the other hand, is separation to which both analyst and patient agree. The nature of the agreement will emerge as the discussion proceeds. But, to start with, here is an idealized and very much over-simplified version of an end, to illustrate how it could take place.

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8. Starting analysis

Fordham, Michael Karnac Books ePub

Before considering the suitability of a patient for analytical therapy it is necessary to be sure that the condition for which he has come for an interview is not due to an organic disease such as brain tumour, disseminated sclerosis and so forth. Organic disease has usually been already excluded but must be kept in mind in case an error in diagnosis has been made. The subject of psychosomatic disorders, such as asthma, eczema, migraine, is more difficult, for though it appears that they are sometimes helped by psychotherapy, the grounds for so thinking are empirical and not well understood. So treatment for their physical aspect must be ensured, and additional evidence looked for when considering the desirability of analytical therapy.

It is in line with anxiety about missing an organic disease that, at one time, psychotherapy was recommended on a negative diagnosis: if the cause of a patient’s distress was not physical, then it was thought to be psychological. Today, however, an analytical therapist does not think this sufficient; he will want to arrive at a positive assessment as to whether the patient is likely to benefit from the long and often arduous treatment.

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K. LAMBERT: The personality of the analyst in interpretation and therapy

Karnac Books ePub

KENNETH LAMBERT

The Fifth International Congress of Analytical Psychology (1971), on ‘Success and failure in analysis’, raised important questions about the relationship between psychotherapy and analysis, together with the problem of assigning a precise meaning to the words success and failure.

In the group discussion that followed the opening paper on ‘Failure in analysis’ by Michael Fordham, two issues emerged. They were, first, the failure of analysis, which can be described exactly, and, secondly, the failure of therapy, which is less easily assessed. The analytic failure described in the paper was to enable the patient to respond to the analysis of a projective identification that was central to her personal relationships. Her block was judged unshiftable after many years’ work, and the treatment, after good notice, was terminated. In other respects the patient’s fulfilment in her life had improved considerably—as well as her general capabilities and success in her profession. This, however, could not with certainty be attributed to the analytical treatment, though to the onlooker it appeared as if successful psychotherapy had taken place.

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