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Chapter 3 Leading the Implementation of High-Quality Instruction

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy Solution Tree Press ePub

KEY QUESTIONS

• How do you define high-quality instruction? To what extent do you think teachers in your school or district share this definition? What discussions have you had with faculty about the features of high-quality instruction?

• What challenges do your teachers face in accommodating students’ diverse learning needs? How have you helped teachers deal with these challenges?

• What features do you look for in your school’s literacy programs? Which features are consistent within and across grade levels? What do you think are the strengths of the school’s literacy program? What are its limitations?

The Common Core State Standards for English language arts represent the content—the what of teaching. Understanding what students are expected to learn is an important aspect of schooling. If teachers teach the wrong content, students will not achieve as expected. For example, if a seventh-grade teacher provides an excellent year of high-quality instruction using fifth-grade standards, the students will exit the year as incoming eighth graders ready for sixth grade. This is a challenging point as many teachers focus on students’ development and teach to their current level of performance. As a leader, you will need to monitor the content teachers deliver and guide them to raise their expectations for all students. The focus of the previous chapter, understanding the CCSS, is a critical first step.

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Appendix B

Tuchman Glass, Kathy Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix B

Elements of Literature

This section details the elements of literature and how they are used in narrative fiction and nonfiction.

However, a narrative rarely rests on just these elements alone. When authors compose their work, they enhance these characteristics through a range of literary devices and figurative language—the focus for appendix C. For example, an author might use imagery to create a descriptive setting to elicit a mood. Or, he or she can incorporate flashbacks in a plot to add dimension to his or her work.

The purpose, task, audience, genre, and other factors drive these decisions. For activity, assessment, and lesson ideas to teach these elements, see chapters 3 (page 49), 4

(page 55), and 5 (page 111).

Elements of Literature in

Fictional Narratives

The elements of literature—or narrative elements— are the heart and soul of fictional narrative. They include characters, setting, plot, point of view, and theme. Without them, a work of fiction seems incomplete, undeveloped, or inadequate. Most standards include them in their list of reading and writing expectations. (Elements as they pertain to nonfiction narrative appear later in this appendix on page 135.)

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Appendix B

Bill Barnes Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix B

Cognitive-Demand-Level

Task-Analysis Guide

Source: Smith & Stein, 1998. Copyright 1998, National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics.

Table B.1: Cognitive-Demand Levels of Mathematical Tasks

Lower-Level Cognitive Demand

Higher-Level Cognitive Demand

Memorization Tasks

�� These tasks involve reproducing previously learned facts, rules, formulae, or definitions to memory.

�� They cannot be solved using procedures because a procedure does not exist or because the time frame in which the task is being completed is too short to use the procedure.

�� They are not ambiguous; such tasks involve exact reproduction of previously seen material and what is to be reproduced is clearly and directly stated.

�� They have no connection to the concepts or meaning that underlie the facts, rules, formulae, or definitions being learned or reproduced.

Procedures With Connections Tasks

�� These procedures focus students’ attention on the use of procedures for the purpose of developing deeper levels of understanding of mathematical concepts and ideas.

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Chapter 5 Integrating Assessment and Intervention

Chris Weber Solution Tree Press ePub

Success in mathematics is a moral imperative and “algebra is a civil right” (Moses, 2001, p. 5). If educators do not believe in each student’s ability to master mathematics concepts and procedures, then we would have to consider why we are bothering to intervene. We must accept that some students will simply require alternative strategies to learn, that not every student will learn the same way, and that some students will require additional time. We must also believe in our ability to teach every student. A teacher’s sense of self-efficacy significantly predicts the achievement of students, and elementary school teachers’ beliefs in their abilities to teach mathematics lag far behind their beliefs in teaching reading well (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Bandura, 1993; Coladarci, 1992; Dembo & Gibson, 1985). We must also believe, and communicate to students, that mathematics achievement is not dependent on innate ability; work ethic, effort, perseverance, and motivation exert a significant impact on learning (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007; Dweck, 2006; Seligman, 1991).

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Part One Promoting Learning in the Inclusive Classroom

Toby J. Karten Solution Tree Press ePub

I hated the shorter line when we went to lunch and specials. My class only had ten kids in it with two teachers. The other classes had so many more kids. I just knew that everyone was looking at me and thinking, Boy, is he stupid or what! Now, because I did OK in that other class, I am back in the bigger classroom with my friends for most of the day. That’s where I have social studies and science and go to gym, art, and music with the kids who ride the bus with me and live on my block. I still do my reading and math in a separate room with a different teacher and other kinds of books. Sometimes the smaller room is OK. When I’m with the resource group, I don’t care as much about messing up, and the teacher helps me learn the things I need to know. When I was younger, I hated school and sometimes myself. Now, I have more friends, and school isn’t so bad.”

It is tough for some kids to fit in when others view them as being different. This affects their self-esteem, which in turn influences academic performances and social interactions. Special education classes that set kids apart and flag them as “different” still exist today, but they are rapidly being replaced by classes that employ teaching strategies that accept and embrace all students (without the stigmatization). Today, differences are becoming the norm in heterogeneous inclusive classrooms.

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