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Chapter 10

Balch, Tonya C.; Balch, Bradley V. Solution Tree Press PDF

Chapter 10

Crises

This chapter describes a team effort to address something that every team will face, although the hope is that it remains an exception—crisis. Often, when we consider school crises, our minds quickly go to those unfortunate events that shock the United

States and have a persistent media presence for days—the Parkland, Florida, shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School; Hurricane Harvey’s Texas devastation; and the gang-related violence in the Central Islip, New York, area come to mind.

These examples clearly illustrate the power of crises to extend far beyond any one person, affecting entire school communities, if not an entire country and beyond.

International crises can gain similar media attention and often surround humanitarian issues such as refugees and the need for educational services for refugee children.

Localized school crises that may not quickly come to mind but are omnipresent include students facing hunger, poverty, violence, and addiction.

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Chapter 5

Marzano, Robert J. Solution Tree Press PDF

CHAPTER 5

CONTENT

Conducting Knowledge Application Lessons

A third type of content lesson a teacher might employ involves knowledge application. Knowledge application lessons encourage students to move beyond the content and begin generating their own claims and conclusions. In these lessons, teachers facilitate students’ exploration of their knowledge by providing guidance and resources. Ultimately, knowledge application lessons not only help students master the content but also help them examine the intrinsic ideas within content and how these concepts might apply to the overarching unit.

The goal of this design area is for students to generate and defend claims through knowledge application tasks after teachers present new content. Teachers are able to meet that goal by answering the question, After presenting content, how will I design and deliver lessons that help students generate and defend claims through knowledge application? The three elements and associated strategies in this chapter help the teacher do just that.

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Chapter 3 How Will Instruction Support Student Learning?

Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research ePub

Perhaps the best way to understand instruction in a PCBE system is to contrast it with instruction in a traditional system. To illustrate the traditional system, consider a fifth-grade science teacher. She organizes her instruction in units. At the beginning of each unit, she communicates the intended outcomes as learning targets and posts them on the whiteboard. She then introduces new knowledge to students through direct instruction. As students start to develop content grounding, the teacher inserts other lessons designed to deepen students’ understanding of concepts or allow them to practice their fluency with skills and processes. Near the end of the unit, the teacher presents students with more challenging tasks that require them to apply their knowledge in novel situations. Along the way, she administers quizzes and tests, and records scores in the gradebook along with points for homework. When the unit ends, a new one begins and the same processes are repeated. As this example illustrates, in a traditional classroom almost all instruction is geared toward the class as a whole. At any point in time, every student is probably working on the same activity and the same topic, and those who have difficulty or are working at a slower pace are given a lower grade to acknowledge the missed content. The whole class then moves on to the next scheduled topic.

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Appendix B: Science Academic Word Lists for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press PDF
Teaching Your Secondary ELLs the Academic Language of Tests:
Focusing on Language in Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies

Test Question Verbs   See All Chapters
Medium 9781574415162

3. Intelligence Testing and the Mexican Child

Gilbert Gonzalez UNT Press ePub

Chapter 3

Studies of the intellectual abilities and educational achievement of Mexicans in relation to other races and nationalities in the United States between 1915 and 1950 showed the Mexican child scoring consistently lower than the normal range and the average for the Anglo population. The authors of no fewer than sixteen studies, most dating to the twenties and early thirties, concluded that heredity intellectually handicapped the Mexican. Another seventeen articles attributed the low average scores mainly to environmental, cultural, or language factors. Some studies straddled both positions, and a few argued for neither. Nevertheless, whether the research leaned toward nature or nurture, the findings revealed that Mexican children consistently failed to do as well as Anglo children on one of the key educational tools of the twentieth century: the intelligence test.

Although the concept of intelligence developed apart from the concept of the organic society, testing psychologists and proponents of organic social theory had much in common. Both sought to maintain the social order as an efficient, harmonious, and cooperative organization. One might even say that the theory of the organic society laid out the long-range objectives and the concept of intelligence in its practical form, the IQ test, facilitated the realization of those objectives. Thus, a principal contribution gained from the extensive application of IQ testing among minorities, Mexicans in particular, involved the efficient social, political, and economic organization of society. The public school provided the main arena for the testing of individuals and for the changing of various cultural acts, beliefs, and sentiments.

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