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Chapter 7 Engaging Students

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

This design question, which falls under lesson segments enacted on the spot, is, How can I use technology to engage students? Chapter 7 highlights the significance of student engagement in promoting a lively, enthusiastic, and social classroom environment. Nine elements are important to this design question.

Element 24: Noticing when students are not engaged

Element 25: Using academic games

Element 26: Managing response rates

Element 27: Using physical movement

Element 28: Maintaining a lively pace

Element 29: Demonstrating intensity and enthusiasm

Element 30: Using friendly controversy

Element 31: Providing opportunities for students to talk about themselves

Element 32: Presenting unusual or intriguing information

The strategies and behaviors presented in this chapter draw on research on student attention (Connell, Spencer, & Aber, 1994; Connell & Wellborn, 1991; Reeve, 2006). Some argue that engaging students has gradually become more challenging with the rise of fast-paced Internet connections and other media outlets. According to a 2012 Pew Research survey, 87 percent of Advanced Placement (AP) and National Writing Project (NWP) teachers believed that digital technologies are producing “an easily distracted generation with short attention spans,” and 64 percent believed that digital technologies “do more to distract students than to help them academically” (Purcell et al., 2012, p. 2). When carried out properly, however, best practices for instructional engagement are still effective in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers can harness the engaging potential of technology for instructional purposes. Each of the aforementioned elements can be supported by specific strategies from The Art and Science of Teaching (Marzano, 2007), and each strategy can be supported by specific technology tools.

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Appendix A

Marzano, Robert J.; Norford, Jennifer S.; Ruyle, Mike Solution Tree Press PDF

Appendix A

Types of Declarative Content

Chapter 3 (page 43) introduces the idea that content standards involve two basic types of knowledge: (1) declarative and (2) procedural. Of the two, standards statements more commonly focus on declarative knowledge. There are many types of declarative content, and teachers should tailor assessment items to the defining characteristics of these various types.

This appendix addresses ten types of declarative content and the assessment questions that emphasize the defining characteristics of each type.

Specific People or Types of People

Some standards focus on specific people or types of people. Figure A.1 provides some examples of this category of declarative content.

Sample Target Learning Goal

History (grades 3–4): Understands how historians learn about the past if there are no written records

(standard 7, McREL, 2014a)

Mathematics (grades 9–12): Understands that mathematicians commonly operate by choosing an interesting set of rules and then playing according to those rules; the only limit to those rules is that they should not contradict each other (standard 9, McREL, 2014a)

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Chapter 5 A Core That’s Not So Common—Are the CCSS Really That Different From Recent State Standards?

Cheryl Zintgraff Tibbels Solution Tree Press ePub

Just as Dorothy developed insight traveling down the yellow brick road to Oz, our journey through the history, economics, social, political, and education background that seeded the development of the CCSS will provide us with a deeper understanding of the Core. When asked if the Common Core is really so different from past state standards, the information we have garnered on our trek, coupled with what we learn in this chapter, will enable us to answer emphatically: “Yes.” These standards are unique in noteworthy ways.

Whether we are far down the road to implementation of the CCSS or just past the starting line, a review of the organization and structure of the CCSS reminds us of important facets of the standards, brings deeper insights into how they support the shifts, and how they are directly bound to the college and career readiness anchor standards that pave a student’s way to academic success and good jobs in the 21st century workplace. As we focus on teaching a particular grade-specific standard, we need to remind ourselves constantly of how that standard fits, like a puzzle piece, into the overall picture of the Common Core. Each time we teach a particular grade-specific standard, we should put it in context for students. How important is this skill? How will it help students with college and careers? How can students use this knowledge and skill in their studies today, tomorrow, and next week? We need to help students see these connections. This is how we make instruction relevant.

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Three Targeted Instruction and Positive Reinforcement

Tom Hierck Solution Tree Press ePub

Marzano (2003) refers to the three major roles of effective teachers as (1) making wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ, (2) designing classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning, and (3) making effective use of classroom management techniques. Each of these components is critical to the creation of an effective classroom, but none in isolation will guarantee effectiveness or student learning. Marzano concludes that “a strong case can be made that effective instructional strategies and good classroom curriculum design are built on the foundation of effective classroom management” (p. 4). This chapter focuses on this foundation of effective classroom management and its relationship to student success.

In any conversation about student success, we must begin by defining success. We believe that the definition must be as broad as possible to include social, emotional, academic, and behavioral success. To create this individualized success requires a focus on targeted instruction of social skills and a commitment to positive reinforcement for each student. It involves the creation of a curriculum of caring.

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Chapter 2: The Americanization of the Mexican Family

Gilbert Gonzalez UNT Press PDF

46

Chicano Education & Segregation

industrial work sites, day classes for mothers, and naturalization classes.

Indeed, this was a comprehensive program designed to completely eliminate Mexican culture in the United States.

Although a significant chapter in the educational history of the

Chicano community,2 historians, hitherto, have overlooked the Americanization of the family. The insightful and important study by historian

Richard Griswold del Castillo, for example, does not delve into the role of the public educational system in the evolution of the Mexican family,3 and while Ricardo Romo’s excellent history of eastern Los Angeles briefly discusses Americanization in the segregated schools, it does not recognize its impact on women.4 Maxine Seller’s essay on the education of immigrant women recognizes the Americanization emphasis of schooling and includes a discussion of Mexican women,5 but, like Romo’s account, does not link the two. The Americanization of Mexican children went beyond, however, the teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic or allegiance to the country and its institutions. It involved separating children from home and family in such a way that they would come to desire a home and family of a different kind. Educators perceived the

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