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David Mager Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub
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Chapter 16: Create Change

Geoffrey M Bellman Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

If we could devise a recipe for change, its main ingredients are shown in the GTD model: YOU and the key PEOPLE, their WANTS and the current REALITY. Yes, other herbs, spices, and ingredients can be added to bring out the flavor and consistency of the change you want, but without these four core ingredients, you cannot get the change you hunger for. And it is not simply a matter of throwing all the mixings into the organizational pot and stewing them together; it is much more subtle than that—and that is what this chapter is about. The focus is change, particularly on narrowing the gap between WANTS and REALITY. Yes, the YOU and PEOPLE will be involved, but this chapter is particularly concerned with the nature of change and what is involved in building a constructive tension between what you’ve got and what you want.

People working in organizations often are rewarded for creating stability; that’s what organizations have been about through much of history. Organizations assemble resources toward a common purpose within a structure to produce predictable outputs. No, it doesn’t always work that way, but that is the intent. The important point is that they seek out the “best” way, find it, adopt it, and don’t want to let go of it. And the members of the organization are rewarded for finding and maintaining this stability. Change is particularly difficult in this environment. Building a stable organization that is receptive to instability is a hard notion to grasp. It’s possible, but when people do not understand that concept, they will resist the change rather than welcome it.

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David C. Korten Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The Bankers own the earth. Take it away from them, but leave them the power to create money, and with the flick of the pen they will create enough money to buy it back again.


The Wall Street money game is a power game as old as empire. And like Monopoly, the popular board game, the game isn’t over until the winner has it all. So what does Wall Street want? Everything. And the crash of 2008 did nothing to diminish that drive.

The basic question is whether our institutions should be designed to meet the needs of all or to facilitate the Wall Street drive to get it all. Wall Street’s answer is clear.

The Nobel Prize–winning economist Paul Krugman opens The Conscience of a Liberal with a personal reflection on growing up during the post–World War II years believing that a bipartisan political consensus framed by the New Deal of the Roosevelt administration was what America is about. Only when the New Deal consensus fell apart did he begin to see the deeper truth.

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3. Review of Research on Diversity and Organizational Performance

Cox, Taylor Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Chapter Two discussed the moral, legal, and economic performance factors that make working and managing diverse workgroups a core competency issue for leaders in the 1990s. With regard to the economic performance of organizations, the logic of the EOMC and VID perspectives was explained. Although the logic itself should provide substantial motivation for investment in organization change to create a positive diversity climate, I have found that individuals often ask for empirical evidence of the relationships discussed in Chapter Two. This chapter will provide some assistance by responding to this concern.

There is research evidence to support the idea that affective and achievement outcomes of individuals are influenced by dimensions of diversity such as gender, racioethnicity, and age. For example, in a recent study of compensation among 503 MBAs of various industries, Cox and Harquail (1991) found that female MBAs earned less than male MBAs from the same business school even after controlling for seniority, industry, job performance, and other factors that determine salaries. Other researchers have found similar results (Reder, 1978; Strober, 1982; Devanna, 1984; Olson & Frieze, 1987).

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8. Implementing the Four Levels

Donald Kirkpatrick Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

Chapter 8

Implementing the Four Levels


verybody talks about it, but nobody does anything about it.”

When Mark Twain said this, he was talking about the weather. It also applies to evaluation—well, almost. My contacts with training professionals indicate that most use some form of reaction,“smile,” or

“happiness” sheets. Some of these sheets are, in my opinion, very good and provide helpful information that measures customer satisfaction.

Others do not meet the guidelines that I listed in Chapter 4. And many trainers ignore critical comments by saying, “Well, you can’t please everybody” or “I know who said that, and I am not surprised.”

Where do I start? What do I do first? These are typical questions from trainers who are convinced that evaluation is important but have done little about it.

My suggestion is to start at level 1 and proceed through the other levels as time and opportunity allow. Some trainers are anxious to get to level 3 or 4 right away because they think the first two aren’t as important. Don’t do it. Suppose, for example, that you evaluate at level

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