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Appendix: Governance

Bingham, Tony Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Organizations considering deploying social software for communication and learning are often concerned with how to govern its use. Should they be heavy-handed in their policies or trust people to use common sense? The most effective policies we’ve seen fall somewhere in between: comprehensive and educational, using the guidelines to coach employees through how they are expected to behave online and treating people as trustworthy.

Chris Boudreaux, an executive at Converseon, created SocialMediaGovernance .com, a site full of tools and resources to help managers and leaders with social applications. The policies page on this site provides examples of social media guidelines, policies, and templates from organizations of all sizes in the public and private sectors.

An exemplar in social media governance is IBM, whose official guidelines aim to provide helpful, practical advice—and also to protect both IBM employees and IBM itself, as the company embraces social computing. The guidelines were created by IBMers collaborating with one another using an internal wiki and have evolved several times since first established in 2005 as new technologies and social networking tools become available.

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Chapter Seven: Listen, don’t judge

Jana, Tiffany; Freeman, Matthew Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

What happens after you ask? You listen. And listening, as simple as it sounds, is an essential but challenging skill to practice when interacting with people who have ideas that are different or conflicting to you. Studies have repeatedly shown that most of us are terrible at listening, at least when measured by asking people to recall what others have said. One seminal study indicated that most of us only recall about 25 percent of what we hear.1

Listening empathetically is the key to helping you move beyond your assumptions about another person’s experiences and perspectives. We spend our lives attempting to justify our perspectives and choices, and when someone shares a story that challenges our own worldview, most of us stop listening and start creating a defense of our own opinions.

Imagine a world where everyone is free to live life their way without causing harm. You can be part of that world if you suspend judgment long enough to get to know people for who they really are instead of who you think they are.

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Chapter 6: Appropriate Project Cycles for Independent Projects

Hass, Kathleen B. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

As depicted in the Project Complexity Model, independent business projects are typically of short duration and are staffed with competent project leadership and internal team members (two to four team members) who have worked together in the past, use repeatable processes, and have a track record of reliable estimates. Scope has been minimized, and both the schedule and budget have some flexibility.

The business objective on an independent project is clear, requirements are well-defined and stable, and the solution is readily achievable using existing, well-understood technology. In addition, the project has strong executive support, few stakeholders, and no political implications. Minimal organizational change is involved, affecting only one business unit, one familiar business process, or one IT system undergoing maintenance or enhancement. No new or unfamiliar regulatory requirements or punitive exposures are being addressed, and the IT complexity is low. Table 6-1 presents the complexity profile of an independent project.

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7. Developing a Stakeholder Strategy

Svendsen, Ann Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Strategy is the way a company defines its business and links together the only two resources that really matter in today’s economy: knowledge and relationships.

—R. Normann and R. Ramirez, 1993

Building stakeholder relationships is becoming more challenging. As the boundaries around and within corporations become more diffuse, the number and complexity of relationships increases. In addition, the potential for inconsistencies and errors of judgment grows as more employees are empowered to take on responsibilities for initiating and managing relationships with external stakeholders. These factors increase the need for a consistent and effective stakeholder strategy.

This chapter outlines a process for developing such a strategy. By following the steps outlined in this chapter, you will be able to answer the following important questions:

You will recall that one of the key features of the model of corporate-stakeholder relations described in chapter 3 was the notion that corporate strategy, among other things, defines how a company manages its explicit and implicit contracts with stakeholders. It defines what the company expects to receive from its stakeholder relationships and what it is prepared to give. This stakeholder-oriented view of strategy differs sharply from the traditional view that strategic plans should focus mostly on financial goals and initiatives designed to improve financial performance.

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3. Social Constructionist Challenge to Representational Knowledge: Implications for Understanding Organization Change

Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Implications for Understanding Organization Change

Frank J. Barrett

The field of Organization Development and Action Research emerged in the 1940s at the height of the Industrial Age. It should come as no surprise, therefore, that the mindset of those who designed the foundational OD interventions was part of the larger ethos of Industrial Age thinking inherited from the Enlightenment tradition. This chapter will outline the precepts of modernist thinking that grew out of the Enlightenment and how the legacy of several of these notions informed the early practice and theories associated with OD. Having established the influence of those ways of thinking on mid- twentieth-century managerial and organizational thought, the chapter next explores how many of those Enlightenment beliefs have been challenged since the 1960s from several perspectives that have come under the umbrella term “social constructionism.” The chapter concludes with a discussion of how more recent tenets of social constructionism challenge the earlier premises and practices, while proposing new vistas for the theory and practice of Organization Development and Change, particularly as these ideas are embodied in dialogical practices.

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