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Medium 9781576753415

2. Theoretical Foundation of Performance Improvement

Swanson, Richard Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF


Theoretical Foundation of

Performance Improvement

Purpose of This Chapter

The Performance Improvement Theory Stool

Models of Performance



ake no doubt about it—we have a great deal to learn about change, management, and performance improvement. Theories in all these realms are works in progress. While this research is going on, thousands of charlatans and well-intentioned practitioners are trying to fill the void. Fortunately, we know enough about the theoretical aspects of performance improvement in organizations to be doing much better than present-day practices.

This observation is not intended to disregard experience. Experience is an important part of sound theory but is inadequate by itself

(Swanson, 1990a). Gagne’s (1962) classic research on military training reported that people do not improve, let alone get to excellence, through experience alone. He goes on to say that without serious study, reflections, and the creation of foundational concepts and theories, we will continue to repeat our failed experiences without learning from them.

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Medium 9781847770684

A Pattern

Elizabeth Jennings Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF
Medium 9781743603604


Berendt, John Lonely Planet Publications ePub

One winter day I received a glorious proposition. Would I agree to travel anywhere in the world on 24 hours’ notice? My only obligation would be to spend six days in that place, doing whatever I liked, and then write about it. I would not have the faintest clue what my destination would be until the day before I departed, when my electronic plane ticket would be emailed to me. Only countries deemed war zones were off the table. Everything else was a possibility. It could be Iceland or China. Tanzania or Peru. I said yes, but I had a condition of my own: I had to depart for my trip on September 18, the day after my forty-fifth birthday.

It was a birthday that had special significance to me. My mother had died at forty-five and I’d been thinking for quite some time about how to commemorate that crossing. In the twenty-three years since she’d been dead, the idea of this birthday had loomed painfully in the distance. A sore spot of impossibility. How could I outlive my mother? Would I? For many years I thought not. But here it was and I wanted to honor the juncture where my mother’s life ended and mine continued. The surprise trip into the unknown seemed the perfect way to do that. Though my mother hadn’t traveled much – with three kids to raise single-handedly and very little money – she’d always wanted to. It was the thing she was going to do next, before cancer put an end to it all. I don’t believe in heaven or an afterlife, but I’ve felt my mother’s presence within me every day since she died and I hear her voice too, and always it says only one word. It’s what she wanted for me and what she didn’t get for herself: Go.

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Medium 9781855756069

11 - Freud and James: Let's be Synthetic

Ansermet, Francois Karnac Books ePub


Freud and James: Let's Be Synthetic

Every organism—and man is no exception to the rule—is from the physiological standpoint an entity responding to stimuli with motor acts.1 In other words, to put it simply, external reality is perceived by the sensory systems, which trigger the appropriate motor response. This is, ultimately, the model of the reflex arc; it calls for no further elaboration.

But the discharge of the reflex arc is not all there is. External perceptions can also leave synaptic traces that are inscribed in the neural network by the mechanisms of plasticity. These synaptic traces are the neurobiological correlates of what, following Freud, we have called signs of perception. Yet this sequence of very simple events, which we could liken, for example, to the reflexive retraction of the siphon in Aplysia (Kandel 2001a), is insufficient to account for more complex aspects of human behavior.

As we saw in the preceding chapter, the theory of somatic markers suggests that a given perception is associated with a somatic state. This is the basis of the theory of the emotions and the mechanisms of decision-making that lead to action.

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Medium 9781475819359

America and 21st-Century Global Challenges: The Role of Teacher Education

R&L Education ePub


These are demanding times for America and for nations around the world. Today, as at no time in recent history, we are experiencing massive, often-tumultuous changes that are transforming our society economically, politically, and socially. As we pause to reflect on the first 8 years in this millennium as well as the future,

➣ an increasingly global economy has yielded growing competition among nations and the emergence of new economic powers such as China and India (nowhere is this competition more obvious than in our increasing reliance on the importation of oil and the outsourcing of jobs to other countries);

➣ the tumultuous performance of our economy has resulted in the largest congressional bailout since the Great Depression and major implications for our future;

➣ the workplace and skills that workers will need are being redefined—for example, 85% of all new jobs being created will require some postsecondary education (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008);

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Medium 9781475816167

Reforming Russian Higher Education: Towards More Autonomous Institutions

International Journal of Educational Ref Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, 468 Baldy Hall, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260


The radical changes of the post-“glasnost” period in Russia were brought about by her own people—well-educated and highly-trained—whose value, however, was not appreciated by the system. Being the product of the Soviet education (because and despite of this fact), they turned first of all to school with an eye to its transformation so as to enable the self-development of creative and responsible personalities. The major goals of the educational reform were conceptualized by the Temporary Research Collective VNIK) “School” and became part and the parcel of the 1992 Law on Education. The underlying principles of the state educational policy, as adopted from the 1992 Law on Education, Article 2, are the following: 1) humanism as actualized in a child-centered approach, commitment to universal values and the free development of personalities and citizens; 2) multiculturalism which pursues both integrity of the federal cultural and educational systems and protection of regional and ethnic cultural traditions; 3) secular character of the state and municipal educational institutions; 4) freedom and pluralism in education (implying choice of methods of teaching and teaching materials for teachers, choice of schools and programs for students and their parents, and overcoming dogmatism in general); 5) democratic principles of governance and autonomy of educational institutions.

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Medium 9781847770998

What Birds?

John Gallas Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF
Medium 9781609949600

The Price of Leadership

Miller, Mark Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Blake was excited to meet with Debbie to update her on his previous visit.

This morning, Blake and Debbie met in the parking lot as they approached the shop.

“How are you this morning?” Debbie asked.

“I’m doing okay.”

Debbie knew Blake well enough to know he wasn’t telling her the whole truth.

“Okay …” she hesitated. “Let’s get our drinks and find a table.” A few moments later they were seated in their usual spot.

“How’d the meeting go with Molly?”

“Well, Molly clearly lives out her belief that leaders respond with courage.”

“She does. That’s one of the reasons many people love her … and others don’t.”

“I guessed that responding with courage would not always be popular,” Blake said.

“Your instincts are correct, not everyone is a fan of Molly Ortega.” Debbie affirmed Blake’s intuition. “It just wouldn’t be productive to display some of the letters and emails she receives,” Debbie said with a grin.

“I guess making everyone happy is out of the question,” Blake said, thinking out loud.

“When leaders lead well, not everyone is going to be happy.”

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Medium 9781574412802

Shell Pink Clock

Amy M. Clark University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781607320074

3. Grassroots

Ellen Wohl University Press of Colorado ePub

A child said “What is the grass?” fetching it to me with full hands, How could I answer the child? I do not know what it is any more than he.


At the base of the Colorado Front Range lies a tiny patch of undulating grassland that occupies the boundary between two of the continent’s enormous physiographic regions: the wide-spreading interior plains to the east and the broad band of the Rockies to the west. Geology, topography, climate, and ecological communities differ dramatically east and west of this point on Earth. Eastward there is no boundary but the distant meeting of land and sky. Westward the first row of the foothills forms a solid dark line on the western horizon each evening. This line marks the western limits of the grassland. The land rises steeply into rocky slopes on which tough mountain mahogany bushes and gnarled ponderosa pine trees start to displace the grasses. Further west, beyond the first row of foothills, lodgepole pines and spruce and fir replace the ponderosas and eventually give way to alpine meadows thousands of feet higher in elevation than the prairie.

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Eight: Choice as sacrifice, choice as freedom

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

tion of abortion existed even though it was illegal. I chose not to go that route. Like so many women, I did not choose adoption. This doesn’t mean these are not entirely valid choices. I just knew they weren’t right for me. I wanted children and thought I was ready for parenthood. I even thought I wanted four children until I had three and was physically exhausted.

When I was thirty-two, after twelve years of taking the high-dose birth control pills that were available then, my body was starting to rebel. The only solution I could see was sterilization. I was not really ready to foreclose my fertility; still, it seemed the best option at the time. By and by, I became divorced from my first husband. By and by,

I met the love of my life, Alex Barbanell, and we married in 1980. We each had three wonderful children already. From the standpoint of responsibility toward world population, we had certainly done our part.

I was never highly motivated enough to try to reverse the tubal ligation. If, however, there is one great sadness for me, it is that I have never had the pleasure of having a truly planned child with someone I wholeheartedly love and at a time of life when we could have provided the environment in which a child could have the best chance to thrive.

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Medium 9781576752500

Dignity: Give It to Get It

Kaye, Beverly Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Aretha Franklin sang it—

“R.E.S.P.E.C.T—find out what it means to me.”

Aretha made a lot of sense (and cents, too) with her hit refrain. Respect has different meanings to different people. To receive it, you have to spell out what respect means to you.

The respect you get influences how much you love (or don’t love) your work. Many dissatisfied people dislike their jobs because they don’t feel respected—for who they are or what they do. If you don’t feel respected, don’t just wait and hope for your boss, colleagues, or employees to give it to you. Clarify what respect means to you. Tell someone what you want and need in order to feel more respected. Find ways to get more respect, right where you are.26

When I was promoted to a project lead role, I was told I needed to be more “leaderlike.” What on Earth did that mean? I asked several people that question, including my boss. She said that I was respected as a researcher, but not as a leader in the organization. She said (and others agreed) that I should speak up in meetings, that I was just too quiet and people assumed I had nothing of value to contribute—otherwise, I would have talked more.

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Medium 9781936764280

Part III: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

Elaine K. McEwan-Adkins Solution Tree Press ePub


Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

There may one day be modes and methods of information delivery that are as efficient and powerful as text, but for now there is no contest. To grow, our students must read lots, and more specifically they must read lots of ‘complex’ texts—texts that offer them new language, new knowledge, and new modes of thought.

ADAMS (2009)

Part III presents a set of literacy strategies designed to help your students meet the standards found in the section of the Common Core College and Career Anchor Standards for Reading titled Integration of Knowledge and Ideas. As Marilyn Adams points out in the epigraph, when students don’t read lots of complex texts, they end up with word and world knowledge deficits that in turn lead to a downward spiral of comprehension difficulties and a diminishing motivation to read. This is a vicious cycle that must be broken and sooner rather than later.

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Medium 9781742207858

Cuenca & the Southern Highlands

Planet, Lonely Lonely Planet Publications ePub

Emerging from the shadows of the breath-sapping peaks, glaciers and active volcanoes of the north, a gentler land reveals itself. Still mountainous, but also more benign, traveling the southern spine of the Ecuadorian Andes ushers intrepid travelers down through lush valleys that secrete some real treats: pastille-hued colonial towns and cities and remote villages where indigenous culture thrives. And – with the exception of the famous regional capital Cuenca – the highways and byways are way less traipsed.

Veering from chilly elfin woodland to humid lowland forest, the region is home to hundreds of bird species, thousands of plant species and scores of mammals. The sheer diversity of these habitats means a trip to any of the region’s large national parks should definitely be on the agenda.

Yet most adventures begin in Cuenca: a classic South American traveler hub with one of the continent's best-preserved colonial centers and a thriving dining, arts and entertainment scene. From there, it’s a choose-your-own-adventure romp through seldom-visited ancient settlements and untrammeled wild areas toward the vibrant city of Loja and balmy new-age Vilcabamba – from where forays start up into stark ocher hills, along to verdant lower slopes coated by the plantations rearing Ecuador's best coffee and down into sticky semi-tropical forest.

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Medium 9781855758568

Chapter Eight: The Symbolizing Function of the Object

Rene Roussillon Karnac Books ePub

Every theory is necessarily a theory of the self and for a given individual, but at the same time it cannot but be a theory of the object and of the manner in which the object subjectifies the self or enables the self to take on board the feeling of being a subject. That is the symbolizing function of the object, if we agree to superimpose the development of symbolization on the function of subjective and subjectifying appropriation.

That is, no doubt, why psychoanalysis is constantly attempting to develop its representation of the symbolizing function of the object and of the process of symbolization. It is also why psycho-analysis modifies or adjusts certain sections of its theory in order to fit them more closely to the ongoing progress it makes in understanding symbolization. Psychoanalysis had first to acknowledge that symbolization certainly does not go without saying, but that it is the outcome of an internal processing that demands more than simply putting a curb on discharge; it then had to admit that the quality and nature of intrapsychic binding are just as fundamental as its purely quantitative aspects. Our conception of the work of symbolization had to integrate these points, and in so doing was modified. Those aspects have had an impact also on our conception of the intersubjective function of the Oedipal objects and on the way in which we conceive of their symbolizing—or potentially symbolizing—function for the individual concerned.

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