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Medium 9781574413441

4. Arnold Places LeMay in Command

Herman S. Wolk University of North Texas Press ePub

4

Arnold Places LeMay in Command

In July 1944, Brigadier General Hansell, then the Chief of Staff, Twentieth Air Force, wrote to the Joint Staff Planners: “Sustained B-29 operations against the aircraft industry of Japan from bases in the Marianas will commence on or about 1 November 1944. Within three months thereafter, the effects of these attacks will begin to be felt.” As it turned out, in a great irony, Hansell in effect had written his own epitaph as commander of the XXI Bomber Command.

As noted, the XX Bomber Command’s B-29 Matterhorn operation led by Wolfe and then LeMay, established under great pressure from Roosevelt, suffered from major logistical difficulties. Similarly, operations in the Marianas under Hansell got off to a slow start. Arnold, already seemingly anticipating a race in the summer of 1945 to force Japan to surrender without an invasion, had been quite clear in his marching orders to Hansell. The AAF commander termed the effort to knock Japan out of the war with the B-29 campaign as the “The Battle of Japan.” He reminded Hansell that he was “watching you from day to day with the greatest anticipation.” Arnold reminded Hansell that “we have a big obligation to meet . . . we must in fact destroy our targets and then we must show the results so the public can judge for itself as to the effectiveness of our operations.”1 This was vintage Arnold: get the job done quickly and then we shall show the results to the American people. Arnold had an extraordinarily sensitive ear to the citizenry.

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Medium 9781576753200

CHAPTER 7 CONVEYING KNOWLEDGE

Merron, Keith Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.

—Albert Einstein

MAXINE IS A CONFIDENT MARKETING CONSULTANT who has a theory about buying patterns. She was taught about such patterns in a marketing class in her MBA program, and it has been a guide for years. She has used it in dozens of situations and has learned when and how the model is most useful. The model, in this case, blends understandings of economic factors, market forces, industry trends, and psychological factors. Together, these factors predict buying choices. Maxine was brought in by a company seeking to take its product line, typically aimed for adults, into the adolescent market. She was confident in herself and trusted her model or theory. Being grounded in the model, she understood the principles upon which the model is based, and could therefore find unique expressions of that model. So because this particular client is dealing with the adolescent population whose buying patterns are notoriously fickle, and influenced by the media, she focused on two features of the model—industry trends and psychological factors—bringing them into sharp relief. Within industry trends, she focused on how the media affects those trends. She then helped her client see how psychological forces inside the adolescent mind affect choices and how understanding the adolescent mind more deeply, in turn, can shape those choices. She did this by facilitating a dialogue that helped the client apply these principles to its target customer base. Economic factors and market forces within the model were touched upon lightly (not ignored) since they were less relevant in this situation. She did not feel she had to fit the situation to the model. For her, it was the other way around. And she did this without calling attention to the model. Instead her whole focus was on the client and its practical use of the model. The net effect was that the client left the meeting with a deeper understanding, making cognitive and practical connections along the way. All of this was done in a smooth, easy fashion that focused on learning and application, not on theory or knowledge. And the client’s experience of Maxine was that she was very wise and helpful.120

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Medium 9780253014481

4. Journals and Periodicals and Their Indexes

Allen Scott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER FOUR

Journals and Periodicals and Their Indexes

This chapter begins with a representative listing of scholarly research journals in music that are currently being published. The oldest is the durable Musical Times; among the newest are several journals (e.g., Journal of Music History Pedagogy) that began publication in the last few years. It is in journals of this sort that new research is most likely to be reported, rather than in the host of periodicals concerned with current musical events, individual instruments, the opera scene, etc.

The list is by no means complete, but a fairly broad selection has been made. The most thorough is in the area of musicology, but other types of research journals are included, as indicated by the subdivisions of this listing. These subdivisions, however, are not rigid; e.g., a general musicological journal may carry an article of a more theoretical or ethnomusicological nature. Furthermore, among the musicology journals listed as being of a general nature, some are more so than others, in which, for example, a period or national emphasis is apparent.

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Medium 9781782201694

CHAPTER ONE Body image models and theories

Rosenfeld, David Karnac Books PDF

CHAPTER ONE

Body image models and theories

I

n psychoanalytic practice one may sometimes find examples like those I present, and that is why the primitive psychotic body image is a useful explanatory model for a variety of clinical cases. There may be different explanatory models, but for the time being I find the primitive psychotic body scheme the most useful and comprehensive, in so far as it is perfectly suited to many of the clinical phenomena I observe.

It helps me to incorporate into a single model developmental genetic and transference concepts, both with schizophrenic and with psychosomatic patients. When we construct a model, we find it useful first for one particular patient but then often for other patients as well. To this we might add, provided it is consistent, a developmental genetic theory of infantile bonds that must be empirically demonstrated in the transference with the psychoanalyst.

The primitive psychotic body image is a non-observable entity, but when we construct the model it becomes powerful from the explanatory point of view. This does not mean that the model represents the ultimate truth, as is the case with theology, but only that is a useful model for the time being.

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Medium 9781609948054

Chapter 1. Have You Had Enough?

Dietz, Rob Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

A person who knows that enough is enough will always have enough.

LAO TZU (SIXTH CENTURY B.C.E.)

A game of checkers offers very little insight into how to solve the world’s intertwined environmental and social problems, or so I thought. In one particular game, my opponent opened with a series of reckless moves, placing checker after checker in harm’s way. When I jumped the first one and swiped it off the board, I briefly wondered if I was being lured into a trap. But it was just a fleeting thought. After all, my opponent was only five years old.

I was playing against my daughter. She had just gotten home from her kindergarten class, and I was giving her a few strategy pointers from my limited bag of tricks. Her moves showed some modest improvement, but after a while, we both lost interest in the game. Besides, there are other fun things you can do with checkers, like seeing how high a tower you can build. At first, we were fast and free with our stacking—we even plopped down two or three checkers at a time. But as the tower grew, we changed our approach. With the light touch and steady hands of a surgical team, we took turns adding checkers one by one to the top of the stack. By this point, our formerly straight tower had taken on a disconcerting lean. On our final attempt to increase its height, the mighty checker tower reached the inevitable tipping point and came crashing down to earth. Like a reporter interpreting the scene, my daughter remarked, “Sometimes when things get too big, they fall.”

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Medium 9781855758780

CHAPTER FORTY-EIGHT: Some comments on “The silent cry”

Karnac Books ePub

This is an unusual paper to find in a psychoanalytic journal, and some might judge it to be inappropriate. The author is a lay person, working in publishing, who has, as her paper indicates, had psychoanalysis herself. The main content of the paper is subjective and historical; of course there is no supporting theoretical structure, and it does not, except very indirectly, present any unitive viewpoint. Nevertheless, since psychoanalysts, too, are first and foremost human beings, whose life-experiences may have some major common features, and who may be impelled to their work by certain shared, if unrevealed, ego ideals arising from these experiences, the occasional paper which, personally and courageously, presents psychic damage and its origins deserves a receptive audience. This is likely to be particularly true for those who still have memories of the Second World War.

A British reader of my generation (mid sixties) inevitably compares and contrasts similar events as they happened here. I came to the conclusion, after reading this paper, that the parallel scene in Britain to that presented as the background to Serenius’s experience, the evacuation of children to the provinces, compared to the similarly-motivated migrations from Finland to Sweden, was not nearly so traumatic. I thought this for three main reasons.

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Medium 9780253016300

6 See Under: Mourning

Emily Miller Budick Indiana University Press ePub

IN RESURRECTING BRUNO SCHULZ or other figures from the murdered Jewish past, Ozick, Roth, Grossman, Appelfeld, Chabon, Krauss, Horn, and Foer ghost/write that past. In fact, they golem/write it, producing idols in and as text. “You lovers of literature. You parasites,” Elsa/Adela hurls at Lars at the end of Ozick’s The Messiah of Stockholm (in a line that echoes the auto-anti-Semitic and anti-Semitic definition of the Jewish writer in Appelfeld’s Age of Wonders); “you should ask yourselves if you exist” (Ozick 1987, 141; italics in original). It is an accusation, I suggest, that the text hurls at itself. Like Roth’s The Prague Orgy, Ozick’s Messiah of Stockholm impugns its own motives. The text is on some level aware that it is as obsessed with Bruno Schulz and the Jewish history he represents as is its protagonist Lars. How could Jews not be obsessed this way? For the writers I have been discussing, the demons of the past are captured in Ozick’s image of “the man in the long black coat . . . hurrying . . . hurrying and hurrying toward the chimneys” (1987, 144); they hurry around and through us as well. To deny this current of Jewish history would be to evade and bury the past in oblivion. To be swept along by it would be to see the world through a murdered eye that can see only what has been and is now destroyed. “That roasting in the air,” writes Ozick, somewhere between her voice and Lars’s. “His own sweat. The exertion. His legs like gyros. O the chimneys of armpits, moist and burning under wool” (18). The imagery repeats throughout the text. In fact, the imagery is the text, and that is my point.

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Medium 9781780490724

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: Introjection revisited

Philippson, Peter Karnac Books ePub

This is an unpublished article that I have only recently finished. It seems to me that it fits well into the themes explored in the articles in this book, looking at a core concept and trying to see it afresh.

I want to explore the meaning and use of introjection in Gestalt therapy. It was a very significant concept in the original formulation and it has often been given a significant place more recently, but I have come to the conclusion that they are different places. This is partly through a general blunting and simplifying of the founding theory, partly through Fritz Perls’ own simplifying and sloganising in his California days, and partly through a more recent counter-current in Gestalt circles that questions the central organising concept of aggression.

The original theory

For Perls, the psychoanalytic idea of an introjected superego confuses two different processes, introjection and assimilation. His image of the difference between the two was of teeth: what the environment provides can be swallowed whole without being metabolised (intro-jected) or subjected to dental aggression, and only the nourishing part is absorbed to support our growth. In the situation of introjection, there is a boundary disturbance and I lose the “taste” of what I am introjecting, so that the I and the you are blurred. In the situation of assimilation, there is a differentiation from, and a contact made with, the other, and a clear sense of myself in relation to what the other offers me and does not offer me, and what I do and do not offer.

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Medium 9781574412376

one: “When will people stop hating?”

William and Rosalie Schiff and Craig Hanley University of North Texas Press PDF

chapter one

“When will people stop hating?”

On this lovely Thursday at the end of summer the citizens of Krakow move as usual through some of the finest architecture in Europe. Towering gothic churches, stately

Renaissance homes and trendy cafes with gilt lettering crowd together around the main square. The true heart of the city is the storybook castle up on the hill where the Polish kings are buried. Below its thick wall flows the shimmering Vistula River.

It’s 1939 and radio is a big deal. People are amazed the technology can bring them news from the other side of the earth. Inspired by the breakthrough, many students at the university are obsessed with math and electronics. Four centuries earlier Copernicus learned enough math here to figure out that the earth goes around the sun.

Not everybody is caught up in the radio craze, however.

The bearded men in long black silk coats walking under the iron streetlamps spend a good bit of their time mastering ancient religious texts. Some believe in a miracle-worker who lived in the dark mountains on the horizon where melting snow feeds the river.

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Medium 9781626568808

7. PRINCIPLE 5. Look at Yourself from a Distance

Pattakos, Alex; Dundon, Elaine Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

We know that humor is a paramount way of putting distance between something and oneself. One might say as well, that humor helps man rise above his own predicament by allowing him to look at himself in a more detached way.1 (V. Frankl)

“I can’t stand my students,” said Janet, an assistant professor at a liberal arts college. She had worked for several years at the same college but every time I (Elaine) got together with her, she seemed more and more frustrated with her students and her job in general. “When I went to college,” she told me, “we respected our professors. We didn’t wear earphones in class, we didn’t text constantly, we didn’t check our email on our laptops, and we didn’t start conversations with the person sitting beside us. I can’t believe how spoiled these kids are. They expect me to spoon-feed them the material and they can’t even bother researching anything beyond Wikipedia. They don’t like to read more than five pages before they lose concentration. And after all that, they expect an A in the class. I even had a parent of one of my students call me and demand that I reconsider her son’s B. Talk about a helicopter parent hovering over their child, unable to let go.” Janet would have gone on and on with her litany of complaints, if I hadn’t interrupted her.

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Medium 9781607058649

Tile Tango

Becky Goldsmith C&T Publishing ePub

tile tango

FINISHED QUILT: 56˝ × 56˝

Made by Becky Goldsmith.

On a visit to Santa Fe, I was struck once again by the beauty of the Mexican tiles around the city square. They are beautiful and utilitarian at the same time—in much the same way that a quilt is.

This design is traditional at heart, but it can feel either contemporary or traditional depending on the colors you use. I chose a variety of blues for the flowers and then added purples that blend into the blues. I added orange (the complement of blue) and gold as accent colors. Next came greens for the leaves.

Look at Pot of Flowers with One Blue Pot. The blue fabric (that ought to be green) in the one block really stands out, which is both exciting and quirky. In my quilt, there is one differently colored block, but it is quieter—with less color rather than more color. It asks to be noticed, rather than shouting to be seen (refer to What Do You See?).

The use of light, medium, and dark values is consistent throughout the quilt, allowing the gray shapes to hold their own visually with the clear colors. I did use some of those gray fabrics in other spots in this quilt. They don’t jump out so much because they look grayer in one context than they do in another (refer to The Changeable Nature of Color).

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Medium 9780946439591

XVI. THE APPLICABILITY OF PSYCHO-ANALYTIC TREATMENT Ta PATIENTS AT AN ADVANCED AGE (1919)

Abraham, Karl Karnac Books ePub

THE question of what the conditions are under which psycho - analytic treatment promises therapeutic success has hardly been discussed at all up to the present, except for some general remarks by Freud in a paper which appeared many years ago.2

Since then psycho-analytic experience has been much increased and its technique greatly developed. It therefore seems an opportune moment to consider more carefully this question, which is of great practical importance. The following remarks are intended as a first attempt to throw light on the subject.

In his paper Freud has expressed the opinion that psychoanalysis loses its effectiveness if the patient is too advanced in years. There is no doubt about the general correctness of this view. It was only to be expected that at the commencement of physical and psychical involution a person should be less inclined to part with a neurosis which he has had most of his life. Daily psycho-analytical experience, however, shows that we must not expect mental processes to be too uniform. It warns us against approaching the investigation or treatment of nervous conditions with a priori theories. For instance, has it not been shown that certain mental diseases which psychiatric medicine has pronounced to be quite intractable are accessible to psycho-analytic methods? It would seem therefore incorrect to deny a priori the possibility of exercising a curative influence upon the neuroses in the period of involution. It is rather the task of psycho-analysis as a scientific procedure to inquire into precisely this question as to whether, and under what conditions, the method of treatment can attain results in patients in the later years of life.

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Medium 9781864620009

Clay animation comes out of the inkwell

Edited by Jayne Pilling John Libbey Publishing ePub

 

Clay animated films were produced in the United States as early as 1908 when Edison Manufacturing released a trick film entitled The Sculptor’s Welsh Rarebit Dream. In 1916, clay animation became something of a fad, as an East Coast artist named Helena Smith Dayton and a West Coast animator named Willie Hopkins produced clay animated films on a wide range of subjects. Hopkins in particular was quite prolific, producing over 50 clay animated segments for the weekly Universal Screen Magazine. But by the 1920s, cartoon animation using either cels or the slash system was firmly established as the dominant mode of animation production. Increasingly, three-dimensional forms such as clay were driven into relative obscurity as the cel method became preferred for studio cartoon production.

Nevertheless, in 1921, clay animation appeared in a film called Modeling, an Out of the Inkwell film from the newly formed Fleischer Brothers studio. Modeling is one of the few known shorts using clay that was released during the 1920s. Modeling included animated clay in eight shots, a novel integration of the technique into an existing cartoon series and one of the rare uses of clay animation in a theatrical short from the 1920s. A closer examination of this Fleischer film is thus significant for two reasons. First, it illustrates how the clay technique ‘fits’ in the Fleischers’ Inkwell series. Second, it reveals a number of traits of the Inkwell format itself. In particular, Modeling shows how the studio maintained an element of novelty in the series by integrating different animation techniques to visualise Ko-Ko the Clown’s fight for corporeal existence, the unvarying central conflict of the series. This broader look at the Inkwell format will show that it embraced a duality of conformity and surprise, of static format and novel technique, of conventional cartoon action set in cartoon space and unconventional animation set in live action studio space. Indeed, even the central star of the series created humour by incorporating within his established ‘star’ persona the regular comic routines of a clown and an antagonistic tendency to leave his cartoon world, disrupting the conventions of film narrative and film space. These dualities became central to the audience’s enjoyment. On the one hand, viewers are comfortable with familiar characters in a familiar format, while on the other, they came to expect from the Fleischer studio the innovative use of animation techniques to visualise Ko-Ko’s on-going subversion of filmic conventions.1 Before turning to a specific examination of Fleischers’ films, an overview of the changes occurring in the emerging animation industry will show what broader impact the slash and cel techniques was having on three-dimensional forms of animation like clay.

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Medium 9781574411737

4. A World of Enemies

Robert D. Wood University of North Texas Press PDF

4. A World of Enemies

L

aredo had been in existence for twenty-eight years before the rebellion of the English colonies in North America resulted in the Treaty of Paris and the recognition of the new nation of the United States of

America. Even before this, however, the English colonists had begun to look westward for land, impervious to the fact that this “wilderness” had been claimed by others long before. All kinds of arguments were used to justify the incursion into Indian lands. When the Indians resisted, the bow and arrow were no match for the rifle, and little by little the various Indian groups were displaced and pushed farther west and south. Within half a century the lands claimed by Spain had been infiltrated by new tribes which in turn were often enemies of one another. Having lost their agricultural and hunting grounds the Indians logically turned to raiding the pioneer settlements to exterminate the invaders when possible, but especially to steal animals for food and transportation.

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Medium 9781782202479

Chapter Two: The Canvases Unrolled

Snell, Robert Karnac Books ePub

In 1863 Louis Viardot, journalist, translator, and former director of the Théâtre des Italiens in Paris, was party to the discovery of some rolled-up canvases in a trunk in an attic in Baden-Baden: five bust-length, life-sized portraits in oil, three of men and two of women. They belonged to a retired doctor named Lachèze. Viardot himself had recently moved to the spa with his wife, the legendary singer Pauline Garcia, as a voluntary exile from France. An opponent of the autocratic regime of Napoleon III, Viardot was also an art critic; he recognised the paintings as the work of Théodore Géricault.

Géricault's reputation in France, then as now, was colossal. He had died at the age of thirty-three in 1824 and was, with Delacroix (who himself died in 1863), a figurehead of the Romanticism of the previous generation, and of liberal opposition and dissent. His massive The Raft of the Medusa had been bought for the Louvre shortly after his death, where it still hangs; by the mid-century its status as a national icon was firmly established. In a long letter to the eminent critic Charles Blanc, written from Baden-Baden on 6 December 1863, Viardot produced the first account of the newly discovered Géricaults; it was published in Paris the following month.

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