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Medium 9781782202721

Chapter Two - Putting the Psyche into Neuropsychology

Solms, Mark Karnac Books ePub

Mark Solms

I trained in neuropsychology in the early 1980s. At that time (even more than today) the field was dominated by cognitive theory and methods. Accordingly, we learned a great deal about the manner in which the mechanisms of language, memory, visual recognition, and the like were organized in the brain, but we learned very little indeed about those aspects of mental life that were less readily amenable to computer-based models. Subjects like emotion, motivation, and personality were barely touched upon in my training in neuropsychology.

The great strength of scientific psychology in general, and neuropsychology in particular, is that it considers the mind objectively. The mind, is, after all, just a part of nature—it must somehow be reducible to lawful mechanisms that can be precisely defined in objective, third-person terms. All the achievements of scientific psychology derive from this. Especially in the case of neuropsychology, the fact that the mind can be literally objectified in the form of a physical organ is a great advantage. Studying mental mechanisms from the viewpoint of their physical basis in anatomy and physiology has enormous value from the natural–scientific standpoint, for it introduces into psychology all the possibilities of measurability and control that a physical science provides. The fleeting, fugitive stuff of the mind has always been an embarrassing handicap to scientifically minded psychologists. Neuropsychology changed all that—and that, no doubt, was part of its appeal for me, too, as I entered the field in the 1980s.

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Medium 9780874252415

Controlling Body Language

Jaqueline Stewart HRD Press, Inc. PDF

8

Controlling Body Language

Description: This activity demonstrates how body language can be used to reinforce the spoken message.

Objective: By the end of this activity, participants will be able to use gestures to emphasize what is being said.

Group Size: Maximum of 10 participants.

Time: Between 1½ hours to 2 hours.

Materials Required:

Background:

Video recording equipment and playback facility (if available)

Flipchart and markers

Notepaper and pens or pencils for participants

Used effectively, body language can greatly improve a presentation; used incorrectly, it can ruin the impact and destroy the meaning.

This activity shows why body language should be used carefully and needs to be thought out in the same way you would plan the use of any other visual aid.

Method:

1. Identify what kind of presentations the participants give.

2. Ask each participant to prepare a two-minute presentation.

3. Invite the first participant to give his or her presentation without using body language. The individual needs to imagine that if any part of his or her body moves, he or she will get an electric shock!

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Medium 9780892726301

chapter eleven OTHER FURBEARERS

Silliker, Bill, Jr. Down East Books ePub

Beavers particularly favor the bark of hardwood trees but will also eat the buds and bark of softwoods in spring, as well as various water plants, cultivated crops, and even an occasional dead fish.

The beaver swam back and forth along the shore of the pond as it gathered its winter food supply. Living up to its reputation for busyness, the animal made many trips past our cabin every morning, hauling the limbs it had cut from trees on the far northern shore. When it reacted its lodge on the south side of the pond, it dived under the surface and jammed each new branch into the mud on the bottom to add to its cache.

Each time it swam by, it made an inviting target for my camera, except for one thing: This was a week of dull overcast skies, and the early morning light

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Medium 9781786390929

1 Overview of Tourism in Warm-water Island Destinations

McLeod, M.; Croes, R. CABI PDF

1

Overview of Tourism in

Warm-water Island Destinations

Michelle McLeod1* and Robertico Croes2

The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica; 2University of Central Florida,

Florida, United States of America

1

1.1  Background and Rationale

Island tourism is a unique form of tourism that requires exemplification. An island is a piece of land surrounded by a body of water. The physical dimensions are varied and these landforms may occur as archipelagos with several islands, atolls, islets and general masses occurring within close range and islands being included based on their appearance during high and low tides. Island formations originate from tectonic activities involving the Earth’s crust and these activities provide islands with certain geographical features, such as the Pitons or volcanic plugs in St. Lucia. Island tourism denotes tourism activities within these island environments.

As tourism continues to be a dominant global activity for economic gain and employment, there is a need to understand how the business of tourism affects island environments. Principally, islands are physically resource-constrained with small physical spaces and population sizes. If one was to categorize islands, this would mainly be based on size, with small islands being identified not just by the physical landscape, but more so by having a population of less than 1.5 million (Croes,

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Medium 9781780647296

4 Plant Responses to Chilling Temperatures

Shabala, S. CABI PDF

4 

Plant Responses to Chilling

Temperatures

Eric Ruelland*

Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences of Paris,

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France

Abstract

Plants are submitted to a chilling stress when exposed to low, non-freezing temperatures. Some are able to cope with this stress and acquire chilling tolerance; in some species, the exposure to this stress will even trigger developmental responses. Other (chilling-sensitive) species will not be able to cope properly with the low temperature and will develop chilling symptoms that can lead to plant death. The acquisition of chilling tolerance is associated with huge changes in metabolite contents, such as the accumulation of soluble sugars, dehydrins, RNA chaperones and an increase in detoxification activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS). These changes in cellular components are mostly due to a transcriptome rearrangement. They mean that chilling has been perceived and transduced to the nucleus. Chilling is not perceived by a single mechanism in plants but at different sensory levels that are the very biological processes disturbed by the temperature downshift. Once perceived, chilling stress is transduced. An increase in cytosolic calcium is the major transducing event that will then regulate the activity of many signalling components, including phospholipases and protein kinases. This will end in changes in gene expression. The best-documented pathway leading to gene induction in response to cold is the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) pathway. However, other factors have recently been identified as participating in the low-temperature regulatory network.

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