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Medium 9780253355935

7 Oberkommando der Marine, 1892–1895

Patrick J. Kelly Indiana University Press ePub

When Tirpitz became Chief of Staff to Admiral Max von der Goltz, Commanding Admiral in the Oberkommando der Marine (OK), it was a time of critical uncertainty within all the world’s navies. A generation had passed since the last great naval battle, and a “fog of peace” had descended, analogous to Clausewitz’s famous expression, the “fog of war.”1

By the end of the 1880s confusion reigned in most of the world’s navies about virtually all major strategic, tactical, and technological questions. The last great naval battle had been the Austrian victory over the Italians at Lissa in 1866. It was fought by a potpourri of wooden ships and ironclads, under both sail and steam, using not just artillery but also ramming, a tactic that dated from classical times. Austrian Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff had used a triple line abreast V formation to slam perpendicularly into a larger and more modern Italian fleet that was in line ahead. Execrable Italian leadership complicated any rational analysis of the battle, and it provided only a muddled guide for future development.2

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Medium 9781626563254

#26 Honor Your Commitments

Manning, John Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I had a boss whose favorite mantra was “commitments are sacred.” The thing about his mantra was he didn’t just talk about it. He also clearly applied it to our entire operations team, including how we worked together and served our customers. Because he was unrelenting and consistent about this mantra, I eventually became a believer.

Honoring your commitments is a high-impact activity that can make or break your entire credibility as a leader. The Disciplined Leader promises only what he or she can do. In the end, such leaders build entire reputations, even legacies, around being known as people who always do what they say they are going to do.

When it comes to leadership sins, there’s perhaps nothing more consistently offensive than failing to do what’s been promised. Why? Because when leaders fail to follow through on commitments big or small, people notice, remember, and care when they’re let down. Such leaders lose the esteem of their employees, and both morale and productivity suffer.

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Medium 9781609949327

Chapter 13 It’s Your Move

Richard J. Leider Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Let’s end this book where we started.

In the end it’s up to you.

Will you choose to take your Life Reimagined journey?

Will you choose to add your story to the thousands—the millions—of stories of curious, courageous pioneers of Life Reimagined?

Will you choose to join the Life Reimagined movement?

Here’s why it matters—why what we all do matters.

We’re at the beginning of something powerful and important: the Life Reimagined movement.

It’s a movement that is personal in its touch and widespread in its reach.

It’s a movement that is reimagining more than 50 years of accepted practice and conventional wisdom about the trajectory and purpose of our lives.

This movement does away with outdated boundaries, irrelevant conventions, and unproductive expectations. It challenges a system that has emerged to tell us how society expects us to live our lives.

Because of this movement we are shifting from an old story of a single, predictable trajectory prescribed by social convention to a new story of Life Reimagined and a new way of living that enables each of us to decide our own path, our own journey.

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Medium 9780253357021

3 Consciousness as Distance: Husserl’s “Phenomenology” (the 1929 Encyclopedia Britannica Entry)

Leonard Lawlor Indiana University Press ePub

Freudian psychoanalysis makes a twofold contribution to the project of continental philosophy. On the one hand, like Bergsonism, it places consciousness within a larger system, that of the unconscious. It truly opens the way for the outside. On the other, by means of the priority of the derivatives, it raises the question of the being of language. On the surface, we find neither of these contributions in Husserl. Nevertheless, phenomenology is the dominant movement of continental philosophy in the twentieth century.1 Like psychoanalysis and Bergsonism, phenomenology develops from the nineteenth-century decline of metaphysics and the ascent of psychology. In the first edition of his first major work, the 1900–1901 Logical Investigations, Husserl defines phenomenology as “descriptive psychology.”2 Here, however, phenomenology looks not to be “depth psychology,” but a psychology of consciousness. In 1907, in The Idea of Phenomenology, Husserl establishes a firm and lasting link between phenomenology and Descartes’ philosophy. There is no question that phenomenology elaborates on Descartes’ discovery of the “ego cogito.” The discovery is made possible by methodical doubt. Husserl adopts this method.3 Husserlian phenomenology is made possible by the suspension of belief in transcendent reality (the epoché) and then by a reduction to subjective experience, to immanence (the phenomenological reduction). The epoché places immanent, subjective experience on a level that is no longer merely psychological. So in 1913, in the first book of his Ideas, Husserl redefines phenomenology as “transcendental.” Kant first defines transcendental philosophy as a philosophy concerned with determining the conditions for the possibility of experience. These conditions are not transcendent or otherworldly. Although they are immanent to experience, the conditions cannot, for Kant, be experienced; insofar as they are conditions, they must be different from experience. For Husserl, however, the conditions of experience must be able to be experienced; there must be intuitive evidence for them. So Husserl speaks of transcendental experience. Yet Husserl recognizes the need for the conditions to be different from experience. We see here with phenomenology that difference is the central issue: a difference within experience, a difference that produces a paradoxical ambiguity. It is this paradoxical ambiguity that allows us to understand phenomenology as the “destruction” of the “immediate givenness of consciousness.” This destruction makes phenomenology a thought of the outside.

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Medium 9789351380528


Ajay Kumar Saxena Laxmi Publications PDF


Transport Properties


During the nineteenth century, there was no precise concept known for atomic structure. The electron was discovered by Thomson in 1897, and this discovery had a vast and immediate impact on theories of structure of matter. Three years later (i.e. in 1900) Drude gave his theory of electrical and thermal conduction by considering the metals to be containing free electrons, and thereby applying the kinetic theory of gases to metals.

Accordingly, it is assumed that when atoms of a metallic element are brought together to form a metal, the valence electrons get detached and wander freely within the metal, whereas ions remain intact and play the role of immobile particles. Surrounding the nucleus are Za electrons of total charge –eZa. Out of these, there are Z relatively weakly bound valence electrons and remaining (Za – Z) are relatively tightly bound and are known as core electrons. When atoms condense to form the material, core electrons remain bound to the nucleus, but valence electrons detach from their parent atoms and are called conduction electrons. They are akin to atoms in a gas moving against a background of heavy immobile ions (see Fig. 6.1).

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