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Chapter 5: Recent developments in the neurosciences

Solomon, Hester McFarland Karnac Books ePub

This chapter will seek to show how the archetypal and T developmental analytic traditions can be correlated theoretically through an examination of the recent literature on the implications of early intersubjective exchanges, especially those between the infant and its mother, and the neural and biochemical consequences of such exchanges.

Since this chapter was first written in the late 1990s and subsequently published (Solomon, 2000), many more articles and books have appeared that bring forward the enquiry regarding the connections between depth psychology and further new discoveries in the neurosciences. Two notable extended studies by Jungian analysts are recommended to the interested reader for their relevance to the growing understanding of the overlap between Jungian theory and practice and findings from cognitive and neurosciences. Jean Knox in Archetypes, Attachment, Analysis: Jungian Psychology and the Emergent Mind (Knox, 2003) has offered a revision of Jung's archetypal model and the emergence of symbolic meaning through a close study of attachment theory. Similarly, in Coming into Mind: The Mind-Brain Relationship: A Jungian Clinical Perspective (Wilkinson, 2006), Margaret Wilkinson has made a detailed investigation of the relevance of current neuroscientific findings in Jungian clinical practice, and at the same time demonstrates how Jungian theory and practice are supported by neuroscientific findings.

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13. Tuning

Stanley Ritchie Indiana University Press ePub

Intonation is certainly one of the more contentious and complex issues in music- making. Over the centuries theorists have wrestled with the problem of the distribution of the “comma”—the amount by which the octave is exceeded when one tunes only in perfect thirds and fifths. In order to arrive at a pure octave, the comma must be divided into small parts that are subtracted from various intervals within it. A number of different solutions, so-called temperaments, were arrived at in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which made some keys more tolerable than others, but as composers experimented with increasingly chromatic keys the subdivision of the comma became, of necessity, more and more equal. In equal temperament, the modern solution to the problem, in which the comma is divided into twelve equal parts, no interval other than the octave is pure.

For string players there are two types of intonation: vertical and horizontal. The latter is often referred to as “expressive” intonation, in which sharps are raised and flats lowered in order to produce a particular expressive effect, and is commonly used in solo performance. When playing in a string quartet or orchestra, however, it becomes immediately apparent that this kind of intonation does not work, and it is in these contexts that familiarity with “vertical” intonation, by which thirds and sixths in a chord are pure, is essential. One should first become familiar with vertical intonation in order to understand that when using “expressive” intonation one is playing deliberately, if creatively, out of tune.

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6 Death on the Landscape: Taphonomy and Paleoenvironments

Rachel C. Benton Indiana University Press ePub

6.1. Photographs of various taphonomic states. (A) Isolated limb bone. (B) Articulated limb bones. Pocket knife is approximately 7 cm long. (C) Tortoise (T) resting on former soil surface (S) and buried by fining upward flood deposits. Note photo scale next to shell. (D) Gnaw marks (G) on underside of a jaw bone. (E) Scratch marks (M) on a limb bone. (F) A fragment of tortoise shell that was heavily weathered before burial and fossilization. (D), (E), (F), scale in centimeters. Photos by the authors.

PALEOECOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF THE INTERACTIONS, habits, and lifestyles of extinct species and the ancient communities they formed. Paleoecologists, using data from the fossil and geologic record, reconstruct these communities of plants and animals to gain a better understanding of the relationship between members of that community (Shipman, 1981) and how they responded to environmental changes. Before the paleoecology of an assemblage can be interpreted, the paleoecologist must gain a better understanding of the events that intervened between death and fossilization and what effects these events have on the retrieval of information about the past (Shipman, 1981). This process is called taphonomy. Efremov (1940) introduced the concept of taphonomy as the study of embedding or burial. It is the analysis of the transition of organics from the biosphere into the lithosphere to become part of the geologic record. The term taphonomy can be broken down into the Greek words taphos (burial) and nomos (laws).

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Chapter 10 The Complex Challenge of Creating Professional Learning Communities

DuFour, Richard Solution Tree Press ePub

John Gardner (1988) once observed that “the impulse of most leaders is much the same today as it was a thousand years ago: accept the system as it is and lead it” (p. 24). Those who hope to serve in any leadership capacity in building PLCs must overcome that impulse. They must help people break free of the thicket of precedent, the tangle of unquestioned assumptions, and the trap of comfortable complacency. Their task is not only to help people throughout the organization acquire the knowledge and skills to solve the intractable challenges of today, but also to develop the collective capacity and confidence to tackle the unforeseen challenges that will emerge in the future. No program, no textbook, no curriculum, no technology will be sufficient to meet this challenge. Educators will remain the most important resource in the battle to provide every child with a quality education, and thus leaders must commit to creating the conditions in which those educators can continue to grow and learn as professionals.

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7 Evaluating the Dinosaur Track Record: An Integrative Approach to Understanding the Regional and Global Distribution, Scientific Importance, Preservation, and Management of Tracksites

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

7.1. The Dinosaur Track Road in Teruel (Spain) footprint sites.

Evaluating the Dinosaur Track Record: An Integrative Approach to Understanding the Regional and Global Distribution, Scientific Importance, Preservation, and Management of Tracksites


Luis Alcalá, Martin G. Lockley, Alberto Cobos, Luis Mampel, and Rafael Royo-Torres

MANY PAPERS ON FOSSIL TRACKS, FROM MANY REGIONS of the world have been published in the last two decades, and this rapid increase in documentation has itself generated the idea of a dinosaur “footprint renaissance” marked by a landslide of new discoveries and documentation. Many of these papers mention the significance of these sites in terms of selected variables such as size of site, number of tracks, new or unknown ichnotaxa, new stratigraphic or geographic occurrence, trackmaker behavioral implications, and so forth. However, the significance of fossil tracksites is often not comprehensively discussed or evaluated in such a way as to address all relevant criteria and facilitate comparison with other sites. In this chapter we describe an approach for evaluating tracksites.

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